The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use a concentration of 1 - 5 µg/ml. Predicted molecular weight: 56 kDa.
Use a concentration of 3 µg/ml.
Use a concentration of 10 µg/ml.
FunctionPlays a role as a key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation (By similarity). General protein kinase capable of phosphorylating several known proteins. Phosphorylates TBC1D4. Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Plays a role in glucose transport by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I. Mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1. Promotes glycogen synthesis by mediating the insulin-induced activation of glycogen synthase. The activated form can suppress FoxO gene transcription and promote cell cycle progression. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly.
Tissue specificityExpressed in all human cell types so far analyzed. The Tyr-176 phosphorylated form shows a significant increase in expression in breast cancers during the progressive stages i.e. normal to hyperplasia (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and lymph node metastatic (LNMM) stages.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in AKT1 are a cause of susceptibility to breast cancer (BC) [MIM:114480]. A common malignancy originating from breast epithelial tissue. Breast neoplasms can be distinguished by their histologic pattern. Invasive ductal carcinoma is by far the most common type. Breast cancer is etiologically and genetically heterogeneous. Important genetic factors have been indicated by familial occurrence and bilateral involvement. Mutations at more than one locus can be involved in different families or even in the same case. Defects in AKT1 are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) [MIM:114500]. Defects in AKT1 are associated with susceptibility to ovarian cancer [MIM:604370]; also called susceptibility to familial breast-ovarian cancer type 1 (BROVCA1).
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. RAC subfamily. Contains 1 AGC-kinase C-terminal domain. Contains 1 PH domain. Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
DomainBinding of the PH domain to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PI(3)K) results in its targeting to the plasma membrane. The PH domain mediates interaction with TNK2 and Tyr-176 is also essential for this interaction. The AGC-kinase C-terminal mediates interaction with THEM4.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylation on Thr-308, Ser-473 and Tyr-474 is required for full activity. Activated TNK2 phosphorylates it on Tyr-176 resulting in its binding to the anionic plasma membrane phospholipid PA. This phosphorylated form localizes to the cell membrane, where it is targeted by PDPK1 and PDPK2 for further phosphorylations on Thr-308 and Ser-473 leading to its activation. Ser-473 phosphorylation by mTORC2 favors Thr-308 phosphorylation by PDPK1. Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by interaction with AGAP2 isoform 2 (PIKE-A). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced in focal cortical dysplasias with Taylor-type balloon cells. Ubiquitinated; undergoes both 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination. TRAF6-induced 'Lys-63'-linked AKT1 ubiquitination is critical for phosphorylation and activation. When ubiquitinated, it translocates to the plasma membrane, where it becomes phosphorylated. When fully phosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus, undergoes 'Lys-48'-polyubiquitination catalyzed by TTC3, leading to its degradation by the proteasome.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm. Nucleus. Cell membrane. Nucleus after activation by integrin-linked protein kinase 1 (ILK1). Nuclear translocation is enhanced by interaction with TCL1A. Phosphorylation on Tyr-176 by TNK2 results in its localization to the cell membrane where it is targeted for further phosphorylations on Thr-308 and Ser-473 leading to its activation and the activated form translocates to the nucleus.
Overlay histogram showing starved NIH3T3 cells (red) stained with ab54752 antibody targeting Akt-1. Signal was analyzed by flow cytometry and compared with no primary antibody control (black). Cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 20 minutes and permeabilized with methanol (30min) at -20C. Blocking was carred out in 10% NGS+0.05% tween in PBS. Primary antibody was diluted at 1:100 and incubated for 1 hour at RT.
NIH3T3 cells fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and permeabilized with 0.1% Triton-X100. Primary antibody ab54752 was used at 1:200 dilution and targeted with Goat anti-mouse 488. Cells were counterstained with DAPI 300nM
IHC-P - AKT1 antibody (ab54752)
AKT1 antibody (ab54752) used in immunohistochemistry at 3ug/ml on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human stomach.
Western blot - AKT1 antibody (ab54752)
Predicted band size : 56 kDa AKT1 antibody (ab54752) at 1ug/lane + HeLa cell lysate at 25ug/lane.
ab54752 at 10 ug/ml staining AKT1 in human Hela cells by Immunocytochemistry / Immunofluorescence.
References for Anti-AKT1 antibody (ab54752)
This product has been referenced in:
Wang BD et al. Prostate apoptosis response protein 4 sensitizes human colon cancer cells to chemotherapeutic 5-FU through mediation of an NF kappaB and microRNA network. Mol Cancer9:98 (2010).
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