Purification notesAffinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific phosphopeptide. The antibody against non-phosphopeptide was removed by chromatography using non-phosphopeptide corresponding to the phosphorylation site.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/500 - 1/1000.
FunctionSerine/threonine-protein kinase that acts as a molecular sensor for DNA damage. Involved in DNA nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) required for double-strand break (DSB) repair and V(D)J recombination. Must be bound to DNA to express its catalytic properties. Promotes processing of hairpin DNA structures in V(D)J recombination by activation of the hairpin endonuclease artemis (DCLRE1C). The assembly of the DNA-PK complex at DNA ends is also required for the NHEJ ligation step. Required to protect and align broken ends of DNA. May also act as a scaffold protein to aid the localization of DNA repair proteins to the site of damage. Found at the ends of chromosomes, suggesting a further role in the maintenance of telomeric stability and the prevention of chromosomal end fusion. Also involved in modulation of transcription. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates 'Ser-139' of histone variant H2AX/H2AFX, thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Phosphorylates DCLRE1C, c-Abl/ABL1, histone H1, HSPCA, c-jun/JUN, p53/TP53, PARP1, POU2F1, DHX9, SRF, XRCC1, XRCC1, XRCC4, XRCC5, XRCC6, WRN, MYC and RFA2. Can phosphorylate C1D not only in the presence of linear DNA but also in the presence of supercoiled DNA. Ability to phosphorylate p53/TP53 in the presence of supercoiled DNA is dependent on C1D.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated upon DNA damage, probably by ATM or ATR. Autophosphorylated on Thr-2609, Thr-2638 and Thr-2647. Thr-2609 is a DNA damage-inducible phosphorylation site (inducible with ionizing radiation, IR). Autophosphorylation induces a conformational change that leads to remodeling of the DNA-PK complex, requisite for efficient end processing and DNA repair. S-nitrosylated by GAPDH.