FunctionInitiates extracellular glutathione (GSH) breakdown, provides cells with a local cysteine supply and contributes to maintain intracelular GSH level. It is part of the cell antioxidant defense mechanism. Catalyzes the transfer of the glutamyl moiety of glutathione to amino acids and dipeptide acceptors. Alternatively, glutathione can be hydrolyzed to give Cys-Gly and gamma glutamate. Isoform 3 seems to be inactive.
Tissue specificityDetected in fetal and adult kidney and liver, adult pancreas, stomach, intestine, placenta and lung. Isoform 3 is lung-specific. There are several other tissue-specific forms that arise from alternative promoter usage but that produce the same protein.
PathwaySulfur metabolism; glutathione metabolism.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in GGT1 are a cause of glutathionuria (GLUTH) [MIM:231950]; also known as gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase deficiency. It is an autosomal recessive disease.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase family.
Post-translational modificationsN-glycosylated on both chains. Contains hexoses, hexosamines and sialic acid residues. Glycosylation profiles tested in kidney and liver tissues reveal the presence of tissue-specific and site-specific glycan composition, despite the overlap in composition among the N-glycans. A total of 36 glycan compositions, with 40 unique structures are observed. Up to 15 different glycans are observed at a single site, with site-specific variation in glycan composition. The difference in glycosylation profiles in the 2 tissues do not affect the enzyme activity.