The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/500 - 1/1000. Predicted molecular weight: 140 kDa. Additional weak bands may be detected when blotting using different extract preparations.
Use at an assay dependent concentration. 10-20 µg of antibody immunoprecipitates HDAC4 from a RIPA extract of HeLa nuclei from 1 x 107 cells.
Use at an assay dependent concentration. PubMed: 21953612
Use at an assay dependent concentration. PubMed: 18250163
FunctionResponsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. Involved in muscle maturation via its interaction with the myocyte enhancer factors such as MEF2A, MEF2C and MEF2D.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in HDAC4 are the cause of brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome (BDMR) [MIM:600430]. A syndrome resembling the physical anomalies found in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy. Common features are mild facial dysmorphism, congenital heart defects, distinct brachydactyly type E, mental retardation, developmental delay, seizures, autism spectrum disorder, and stocky build. Soft tissue ossification is absent, and there are no abnormalities in parathyroid hormone or calcium metabolism.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the histone deacetylase family. HD type 2 subfamily.
DomainThe nuclear export sequence mediates the shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated by CaMK4 at Ser-246, Ser-467 and Ser-632. Phosphorylation at other residues is required for the interaction with 14-3-3. Sumoylation on Lys-559 is promoted by the E3 SUMO-protein ligase RANBP2, and prevented by phosphorylation by CaMK4.
Cellular localizationNucleus. Cytoplasm. Shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Upon muscle cells differentiation, it accumulates in the nuclei of myotubes, suggesting a positive role of nuclear HDAC4 in muscle differentiation. The export to cytoplasm depends on the interaction with a 14-3-3 chaperone protein and is due to its phosphorylation at Ser-246, Ser-467 and Ser-632 by CaMK4. The nuclear localization probably depends on sumoylation.
Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) - Anti-HDAC4 antibody (ab12172)This image is courtesy of an anonymous abreview.
ab12172 staining HDAC4 in human rhabdomyosarcoma (soft tissue sarcoma) tissue sections by Immunohistochemistry (IHC-P - paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections). Tissue was fixed with formaldehyde and blocked with 3% H2O2 for 10 minutes at 25°C; antigen retrieval was enzymatic using a proteinase K buffer for 5 minutes at 37oC. Samples were incubated with primary antibody (1/200) for 25 minutes at 25°C. An undiluted HRP-conjugated goat anti-mouse/rabbit IgG polyclonal was used as the secondary antibody.
Rönn T et al. A six months exercise intervention influences the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in human adipose tissue. PLoS Genet9:e1003572 (2013).
Read more (PubMed: 23825961) »
Lenoir O et al. Specific control of pancreatic endocrine ß- and d-cell mass by class IIa histone deacetylases HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC9. Diabetes60:2861-71 (2011).
Read more (PubMed: 21953612) »