Abcam’s Human Complement C4a des Arg in vitro competitive ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the accurate quantitative measurement of Complement C4a des Arg in Human plasma samples.
A goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody has been precoated onto 96-well plates. Standards or test samples are added to the wells, along with an alkaline phosphatase (AP) conjugated-Complement Complement C4a des Arg antigen and a polyclonal antibody specific to Complement C4a des Arg. After incubation the excess reagents are washed away and pNpp substrate is added, which causes generation of yellow color. The intensity of the yellow coloration is inversely proportional to the amount of Complement C4a des Arg captured in the plate.
C4 plays a central role in the activation of the classical pathway of the complement system. It is processed by activated C1 which removes from the alpha chain the C4a anaphylatoxin. The remaining alpha chain fragment C4b is the major activation product and is an essential subunit of the C3 convertase (C4b2a) and the C5 convertase (C3bC4b2a) enzymes of the classical complement pathway. Derived from proteolytic degradation of complement C4, C4a anaphylatoxin is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces the contraction of smooth muscle, increases vascular permeability and causes histamine release from mast cells and basophilic leukocytes.
Involvement in disease
Defects in C4A are the cause of complement component 4A deficiency (C4AD) [MIM:614380]. A rare defect of the complement classical pathway associated with the development of autoimmune disorders, mainly systemic lupus with or without associated glomerulonephritis. Defects in C4A are a cause of susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) [MIM:152700]. A chronic, inflammatory and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue. It affects principally the skin, joints, kidneys and serosal membranes. It is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. Note=Interindividual copy-number variation (CNV) of complement component C4 and associated polymorphisms result in different susceptibilities to SLE. The risk of SLE susceptibility has been shown to be significantly increased among subjects with only two copies of total C4. A high copy number is a protective factor against SLE.
Prior to secretion, the single-chain precursor is enzymatically cleaved to yield the non-identical chains (alpha, beta and gamma). During activation, the alpha chain is cleaved by C1 into C4a and C4b, and C4b stays linked to the beta and gamma chains. Further degradation of C4b by C1 into the inactive fragments C4c and C4d blocks the generation of C3 convertase. N- and O-glycosylated. O-glycosylated with a core 1 or possibly core 8 glycan.