Involved in the 3'-end formation of mRNA precursors (pre-mRNA) by the addition of a poly(A) tail of 200-250 nt to the upstream cleavage product. Stimulates poly(A) polymerase (PAPOLA) conferring processivity on the poly(A) tail elongation reaction and controls also the poly(A) tail length. Increases the affinity of poly(A) polymerase for RNA. Is also present at various stages of mRNA metabolism including nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of mRNA. Cooperates with SKIP to synergistically activate E-box-mediated transcription through MYOD1 and may regulate the expression of muscle-specific genes. Binds to poly(A) and to poly(G) with high affinity. May protect the poly(A) tail from degradation.
Involvement in disease
Defects in PABPN1 are the cause of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) [MIM:164300]. OPMD is a form of late-onset slowly progressive myopathy characterized by eyelid ptosis, dysphagia and, sometimes by other cranial and limb-muscle involvement.
Contains 1 RRM (RNA recognition motif) domain.
The RRM domain is essential for specific adenine bases recognition in the poly(A) tail but not sufficient for poly(A) binding.
Arginine dimethylation is asymmetric and involves PRMT1 and PRMT3. It does not influence the RNA binding properties.
Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Localized in cytoplasmic mRNP granules containing untranslated mRNAs. Shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm but predominantly found in the nucleus. Its nuclear import may involve the nucleocytoplasmic transport receptor transportin and a RAN-GTP-sensitive import mechanism. Is exported to the cytoplasm by a carrier-mediated pathway that is independent of mRNA traffic. Nucleus; nuclear speckle. Colocalizes with SKIP and poly(A) RNA in nuclear speckles.