Anti-Smad3 (phospho S425) antibody (ab51177)
- Product nameAnti-Smad3 (phospho S425) antibodySee all Smad3 primary antibodies ...
- DescriptionRabbit polyclonal to Smad3 (phospho S425)
- Specificityab51177 detects endogenous levels of Smad3 only when phosphorylated at serine 425.
- Tested applicationsELISA, IHC-P more details
- Species reactivityReacts with: Mouse, Rat, Human
Synthetic phosphopeptide derived from human Smad3 around the phosphorylation site of serine 425 (C-S-S-V-SP).
- Positive controlHuman breast carcinoma tissue.
- Storage instructionsStore at -20°C. Stable for 12 months at -20°C
- Storage bufferPreservative: 0.02% Sodium Azide
Constituents: 50% Glycerol, PBS (without Mg2+ and Ca2+ ), 150mM Sodium chloride, pH 7.4
- Concentration information loading...
- PurityImmunogen affinity purified
- Purification notesThe antibody was affinity purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity chromatography using epitope specific phosphopeptide. The antibody against non phosphopeptide was removed by chromatography using non phosphopeptide corresponding to the phosphorylation site.
- Clonality Polyclonal
Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab51177 in the following tested applications.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
|IHC-P||IHC-P: Use at an assay dependent dilution.|
- FunctionReceptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) that is an intracellular signal transducer and transcriptional modulator activated by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) and activin type 1 receptor kinases. Binds the TRE element in the promoter region of many genes that are regulated by TGF-beta and, on formation of the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex, activates transcription. Also can form a SMAD3/SMAD4/JUN/FOS complex at the AP-1/SMAD site to regulate TGF-beta-mediated transcription. Has an inhibitory effect on wound healing probably by modulating both growth and migration of primary keratinocytes and by altering the TGF-mediated chemotaxis of monocytes. This effect on wound healing appears to be hormone-sensitive. Regulator of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis and inhibits early healing of bone fractures (By similarity). Positively regulates PDPK1 kinase activity by stimulating its dissociation from the 14-3-3 protein YWHAQ which acts as a negative regulator.
- Involvement in diseaseColorectal cancer (CRC) [MIM:114500]: A complex disease characterized by malignant lesions arising from the inner wall of the large intestine (the colon) and the rectum. Genetic alterations are often associated with progression from premalignant lesion (adenoma) to invasive adenocarcinoma. Risk factors for cancer of the colon and rectum include colon polyps, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and genetic family history. Note=The disease may be caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Loeys-Dietz syndrome 3 (LDS3) [MIM:613795]: An aortic aneurysm syndrome with widespread systemic involvement. The disorder is characterized by the triad of arterial tortuosity and aneurysms, hypertelorism, and bifid uvula or cleft palate. Patients with LDS3 also manifest early-onset osteoarthritis. They lack craniosynostosis and mental retardation. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. SMAD3 mutations have been reported to be also associated with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissection (TAAD) (PubMed:21778426). This phenotype is distinguised from LDS3 by having aneurysms restricted to thoracic aorta. As individuals carrying these mutations also exhibit aneurysms of other arteries, including abdominal aorta, iliac, and/or intracranial arteries (PubMed:21778426), they have been classified as LDS3 by the OMIM resource.
- Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the dwarfin/SMAD family.
Contains 1 MH1 (MAD homology 1) domain.
Contains 1 MH2 (MAD homology 2) domain.
- DomainThe MH1 domain is required for DNA binding. Also binds zinc ions which are necessary for the DNA binding.
The MH2 domain is required for both homomeric and heteromeric interactions and for transcriptional regulation. Sufficient for nuclear import.
The linker region is required for the TGFbeta-mediated transcriptional activity and acts synergistically with the MH2 domain.
modificationsPhosphorylated on serine and threonine residues. Enhanced phosphorylation in the linker region on Thr-179, Ser-204 and Ser-208 on EGF AND TGF-beta treatment. Ser-208 is the main site of MAPK-mediated phosphorylation. CDK-mediated phosphorylation occurs in a cell-cycle dependent manner and inhibits both the transcriptional activity and antiproliferative functions of SMAD3. This phosphorylation is inhibited by flavopiridol. Maximum phosphorylation at the G(1)/S junction. Also phosphorylated on serine residues in the C-terminal SXS motif by TGFBR1 and ACVR1. TGFBR1-mediated phosphorylation at these C-terminal sites is required for interaction with SMAD4, nuclear location and transactivational activity, and appears to be a prerequisite for the TGF-beta mediated phosphorylation in the linker region. Dephosphorylated in the C-terminal SXS motif by PPM1A. This dephosphorylation disrupts the interaction with SMAD4, promotes nuclear export and terminates TGF-beta-mediated signaling. Phosphorylation at Ser-418 by CSNK1G2/CK1 promotes ligand-dependent ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome degradation, thus inhibiting SMAD3-mediated TGF-beta responses. Phosphorylated by PDPK1.
Acetylation in the nucleus by EP300 in the MH2 domain regulates positively its transcriptional activity and is enhanced by TGF-beta.
Ubiquitinated. Monoubiquitinated, leading to prevent DNA-binding. Deubiquitination by USP15 alleviates inhibition and promotes activation of TGF-beta target genes.
- Cellular localizationCytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasmic and nuclear in the absence of TGF-beta. On TGF-beta stimulation, migrates to the nucleus when complexed with SMAD4. Through the action of the phosphatase PPM1A, released from the SMAD2/SMAD4 complex, and exported out of the nucleus by interaction with RANBP1. Co-localizes with LEMD3 at the nucleus inner membrane. MAPK-mediated phosphorylation appears to have no effect on nuclear import. PDPK1 prevents its nuclear translocation in response to TGF-beta.
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Anti-Smad3 (phospho S425) antibody images
Ab47439, at dilution of 1/50, staining Smad3 in paraffin embedded human breast carcinoma tissue by Immunohistochemistry.
Left image: No peptide.
Right image: Phosphopeptide present.
References for Anti-Smad3 (phospho S425) antibody (ab51177)
This product has been referenced in:
- Finer G et al. Divergent roles of Smad3 and PI3-kinase in murine adriamycin nephropathy indicate distinct mechanisms of proteinuria and fibrogenesis. Kidney Int : (2012). Read more (PubMed: 22534961) »
- Nevo Y et al. Fibrosis inhibition and muscle histopathology improvement in laminin-alpha2-deficient mice. Muscle Nerve 42:218-29 (2010). IHC-P ; Mouse . Read more (PubMed: 20589893) »