Anti-Tau421 antibody [tau-C3] (ab78037)

Overview

  • Product nameAnti-Tau421 antibody [tau-C3]
  • Description
    Mouse monoclonal [tau-C3] to Tau421
  • Specificityab78037 reacts with Tau, caspase cleaved (truncated at Asp421). The antibody shows no reactivity with full length Tau nor other Tau C terminal truncations. The antibody stains amyloid beta treated neurons and brain tissue in Alzheimer's disease, more specifically it stains a subset of neurofibrillary tangles, Tau containing neuritic plaques and neuropil threads.
  • Tested applicationsIHC-Fr, IHC-P, Flow Cyt, WB, ELISAmore details
  • Species reactivity
    Reacts with: Human
    Predicted to work with: Mouse
  • Immunogen

    Synthetic peptide corresponding to the C terminal region of Human Tau421 truncated at aspartic acid 421.

  • EpitopeCaspase Cleaved (truncated at Asp421)

Properties

Applications

Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab78037 in the following tested applications.

The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.

Application Abreviews Notes
IHC-Fr Use at an assay dependent dilution.
IHC-P Use at an assay dependent dilution. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
Flow Cyt Use 1µg for 106 cells.
WB Use at an assay dependent dilution. Predicted molecular weight: 79 kDa.
ELISA 1/1000.

Target

  • FunctionPromotes microtubule assembly and stability, and might be involved in the establishment and maintenance of neuronal polarity. The C-terminus binds axonal microtubules while the N-terminus binds neural plasma membrane components, suggesting that tau functions as a linker protein between both. Axonal polarity is predetermined by TAU/MAPT localization (in the neuronal cell) in the domain of the cell body defined by the centrosome. The short isoforms allow plasticity of the cytoskeleton whereas the longer isoforms may preferentially play a role in its stabilization.
  • Tissue specificityExpressed in neurons. Isoform PNS-tau is expressed in the peripheral nervous system while the others are expressed in the central nervous system.
  • Involvement in diseaseIn Alzheimer disease, the neuronal cytoskeleton in the brain is progressively disrupted and replaced by tangles of paired helical filaments (PHF) and straight filaments, mainly composed of hyperphosphorylated forms of TAU (PHF-TAU or AD P-TAU). O-GlcNAcylation is greatly reduced in Alzheimer disease brain cerebral cortex leading to an increase in TAU/MAPT phosphorylations.
    Frontotemporal dementia
    Pick disease of the brain
    Defects in MAPT are a cause of corticobasal degeneration (CBD). It is marked by extrapyramidal signs and apraxia and can be associated with memory loss. Neuropathologic features may overlap Alzheimer disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Parkinson disease.
    Progressive supranuclear palsy 1
    Parkinson-dementia syndrome
  • Sequence similaritiesContains 4 Tau/MAP repeats.
  • Developmental stageFour-repeat (type II) TAU/MAPT is expressed in an adult-specific manner and is not found in fetal brain, whereas three-repeat (type I) TAU/MAPT is found in both adult and fetal brain.
  • DomainThe tau/MAP repeat binds to tubulin. Type I isoforms contain 3 repeats while type II isoforms contain 4 repeats.
  • Post-translational
    modifications
    Phosphorylation at serine and threonine residues in S-P or T-P motifs by proline-directed protein kinases (PDPK1: CDK1, CDK5, GSK3, MAPK) (only 2-3 sites per protein in interphase, seven-fold increase in mitosis, and in the form associated with paired helical filaments (PHF-tau)), and at serine residues in K-X-G-S motifs by MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (MARK1 or MARK2), causing detachment from microtubules, and their disassembly. Phosphorylation decreases with age. Phosphorylation within tau/MAP's repeat domain or in flanking regions seems to reduce tau/MAP's interaction with, respectively, microtubules or plasma membrane components. Phosphorylation on Ser-610, Ser-622, Ser-641 and Ser-673 in several isoforms during mitosis. Phosphorylation at Ser-548 by GSK3B reduces ability to bind and stabilize microtubules. Phosphorylation at Ser-579 by BRSK1 and BRSK2 in neurons affects ability to bind microtubules and plays a role in neuron polarization. Phosphorylated at Ser-554, Ser-579, Ser-602, Ser-606 and Ser-669 by PHK. Phosphorylation at Ser-214 by SGK1 mediates microtubule depolymerization and neurite formation in hippocampal neurons. There is a reciprocal down-regulation of phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation. Phosphorylation on Ser-717 completely abolishes the O-GlcNAcylation on this site, while phosphorylation on Ser-713 and Ser-721 reduces glycosylation by a factor of 2 and 4 respectively. Phosphorylation on Ser-721 is reduced by about 41.5% by GlcNAcylation on Ser-717. Dephosphorylated at several serine and threonine residues by the serine/threonine phosphatase PPP5C.
    Polyubiquitinated. Requires functional TRAF6 and may provoke SQSTM1-dependent degradation by the proteasome (By similarity). PHF-tau can be modified by three different forms of polyubiquitination. 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination is the major form, 'Lys-6'-linked and 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitination also occur.
    O-glycosylated. O-GlcNAcylation content is around 8.2%. There is reciprocal down-regulation of phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation. Phosphorylation on Ser-717 completely abolishes the O-GlcNAcylation on this site, while phosphorylation on Ser-713 and Ser-721 reduces O-GlcNAcylation by a factor of 2 and 4 respectively. O-GlcNAcylation on Ser-717 decreases the phosphorylation on Ser-721 by about 41.5%.
    Glycation of PHF-tau, but not normal brain TAU/MAPT. Glycation is a non-enzymatic post-translational modification that involves a covalent linkage between a sugar and an amino group of a protein molecule forming ketoamine. Subsequent oxidation, fragmentation and/or cross-linking of ketoamine leads to the production of advanced glycation endproducts (AGES). Glycation may play a role in stabilizing PHF aggregation leading to tangle formation in AD.
  • Cellular localizationCytoplasm > cytosol. Cell membrane. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton. Cell projection > axon. Mostly found in the axons of neurons, in the cytosol and in association with plasma membrane components.
  • Information by UniProt
  • Database links
  • Alternative names
    • DDPAC antibody
    • FTDP 17 antibody
    • FTDP17 antibody
    • G protein beta1/gamma2 subunit interacting factor 1 antibody
    • MAPT antibody
    • MAPTL antibody
    • Microtubule associated protein tau, isoform 4 antibody
    • Microtubule-associated protein tau antibody
    • MSTD antibody
    • MTBT1 antibody
    • MTBT2 antibody
    • Neurofibrillary tangle protein antibody
    • Paired helical filament tau antibody
    • Paired helical filament-tau antibody
    • PHF tau antibody
    • PHF-tau antibody
    • TAU_HUMAN antibody
    see all

Anti-Tau421 antibody [tau-C3] images

  • IHC-P using ab78037 on Human brain (hippocampus). Please see the Abreview for more details
  • Overlay histogram showing SH-SY5Y cells stained with ab78037 (red line). The cells were fixed with 80% methanol (5 min) and then permeabilized with 0.1% PBS-Tween for 20 min. The cells were then incubated in 1x PBS / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine to block non-specific protein-protein interactions followed by the antibody (ab78037, 1µg/1x106 cells) for 30 min at 22ºC. The secondary antibody used was DyLight® 488 goat anti-mouse IgG (H+L) (ab96879) at 1/500 dilution for 30 min at 22ºC. Isotype control antibody (black line) was mouse IgG1 [ICIGG1] (ab91353, 2µg/1x106 cells) used under the same conditions. Acquisition of >5,000 events was performed. This antibody gave a positive signal in SH-SY5Y cells fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde (10 min)/permeabilized with 0.1% PBS-Tween for 20 min used under the same conditions.

References for Anti-Tau421 antibody [tau-C3] (ab78037)

ab78037 has not yet been referenced specifically in any publications.

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Thank you for confirming these details and for your cooperation. The details provided enable us to closely monitor the quality of our products. I am sorry this product did not perform as stated on the datasheet and for the inconvenience this ha...

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Thank you for your enquiry. The paper describing creation and characterization of this antibody is as follows: Caspase cleavage of tau: linking amyloid and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 19;100...

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Application Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections)
Sample Human Tissue sections (Brain- Hippocampus)
Specification Brain- Hippocampus
Fixative Formaldehyde
Antigen retrieval step Heat mediated - Buffer/Enzyme Used: 0.05M Tri-sodium citrate pH6.5 in pressure cooker
Permeabilization No
Blocking step Serum as blocking agent for 1 hour(s) and 0 minute(s) · Concentration: 1.5% · Temperature: 22°C
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Ms. Gemma Lace

Verified customer

Submitted Aug 11 2009

Please note: All products are "FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY AND ARE NOT INTENDED FOR DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC USE"