The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use a concentration of 1 µg/ml. Detects a band of approximately 238 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 256 kDa).
In the visual cycle, acts as an inward-directed retinoid flipase, retinoid substrates imported by ABCA4 from the extracellular or intradiscal (rod) membrane surfaces to the cytoplasmic membrane surface are all-trans-retinaldehyde (ATR) and N-retinyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (NR-PE). Once transported to the cytoplasmic surface, ATR is reduced to vitamin A by trans-retinol dehydrogenase (tRDH) and then transferred to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) where it is converted to 11-cis-retinal. May play a role in photoresponse, removing ATR/NR-PE from the extracellular photoreceptor surfaces during bleach recovery.
Retinal-specific. Seems to be exclusively found in the rims of rod photoreceptor cells.
Involvement in disease
Defects in ABCA4 are the cause of Stargardt disease type 1 (STGD1) [MIM:248200]. STGD is one of the most frequent causes of macular degeneration in childhood. It is characterized by macular dystrophy with juvenile-onset, rapidly progressive course, alterations of the peripheral retina, and subretinal deposition of lipofuscin-like material. STGD1 inheritance is autosomal recessive. Defects in ABCA4 are the cause of fundus flavimaculatus (FFM) [MIM:248200]. FFM is an autosomal recessive retinal disorder very similar to Stargardt disease. In contrast to Stargardt disease, FFM is characterized by later onset and slowly progressive course. Defects in ABCA4 may be a cause of age-related macular degeneration type 2 (ARMD2) [MIM:153800]. ARMD is a multifactorial eye disease and the most common cause of irreversible vision loss in the developed world. In most patients, the disease is manifest as ophthalmoscopically visible yellowish accumulations of protein and lipid (known as drusen) that lie beneath the retinal pigment epithelium and within an elastin-containing structure known as Bruch membrane. Defects in ABCA4 are the cause of cone-rod dystrophy type 3 (CORD3) [MIM:604116]. CORDs are inherited retinal dystrophies belonging to the group of pigmentary retinopathies. CORDs are characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination, predominantly in the macular region, and initial loss of cone photoreceptors followed by rod degeneration. This leads to decreased visual acuity and sensitivity in the central visual field, followed by loss of peripheral vision. Severe loss of vision occurs earlier than in retinitis pigmentosa. Defects in ABCA4 are the cause of retinitis pigmentosa type 19 (RP19) [MIM:601718]. RP leads to degeneration of retinal photoreceptor cells. Patients typically have night vision blindness and loss of midperipheral visual field. As their condition progresses, they lose their far peripheral visual field and eventually central vision as well. RP19 is characterized by choroidal atrophy. Inheritance is autosomal recessive.
Belongs to the ABC transporter superfamily. ABCA family. Contains 2 ABC transporter domains.
Membrane. Localized to outer segment disk edges of rods and cones, with around one million copies/photoreceptor.
This blot was produced using a 3-8% Tris Acetate gel under the TA buffer system. The gel was run at 150V for 60 minutes before being transferred onto a Nitrocellulose membrane at 30V for 70 minutes. The membrane was then blocked for an hour using 2% Bovine Serum Albumin before being incubated with ab72955 overnight at 4°C. Antibody binding was detected using an anti-rabbit antibody conjugated to HRP, and visualised using ECL development solution ab133406.
McClements ME et al. A fragmented adeno-associated viral dual vector strategy for treatment of diseases caused by mutations in large genes leads to expression of hybrid transcripts. J Genet Syndr Gene Ther7:N/A (2016).
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