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ab109712 is a simple, reproducible, and sensitive tool for assaying aconitase from tissue homogenates or cell lysates. Unlike other assays this is not a coupled reaction and therefore only aconitase activity is required and measured. Aconitase catalyzes an equilibrium between aconitate, cis-aconitate and iso-citrate. These reactions are monitored by measuring the increase in absorbance at 240 nm associated with the formation of the cis-aconitate which has an extinction coefficient of 2.2 OD/mM per well. Therefore the rate of cis-aconitate production is proportional to aconitase activity.
Aconitase preservation solution, assay buffer, reagents and an essential UV microplate are provided for this measurement. The entire assay can be completed within 2 hours.
Note – mitochondrial and cytoplasmic aconitase activities are indistinguishable. Therefore, to measure the mitochondrial activity only, first isolate mitochondria, or for both activities fractionate the cells into cytoplasmic and mitochondrial.
Aconitase (aconitate hydratase; EC 18.104.22.168) is an iron-sulfur protein that catalyzes the reversible inter-conversion of citrate and isocitrate, via a cis-aconitate intermediate, in both the TCA and glyoxylate cycles. The enzyme contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster which interacts directly with the substrates. In eukaryotes there are both mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of the enzyme. The mitochondrial form functions not only in the TCA cycle, but also to stabilize mtDNA thereby influencing mitochondrial gene expression. The cytosolic form can function as an aconitase as well as an iron regulatory protein.
The active form of the enzyme is inhibited by citrate analogs, and fluoracetate. Other inhibitors include oxidative stress agents such as peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, which inactivate the enzyme by changing the [4Fe-4S] to a [3Fe-4S] cluster. Aconitase is considered a good marker of mitochondrial and cellular oxidative stress. This change in mitochondrial aconitase can lead to a decreased energy production, whereas in cytosolic aconitase it triggers binding of the enzyme to mRNA iron response elements resulting in increased expression of iron uptake proteins and decreased transcription of iron sequestering protein.
A hydroxyl scavenging solution (Aconitase preservation solution) is supplied with this kit to maintain aconitase activity during sample preparation. An inactivated [3Fe-4FS] aconitase may be activated in vitro by the addition of iron and cysteine.
|10X Detergent||1 x 1ml|
|96-well UV microplate||1 unit|
|Aconitase preservation solution||1 x 20ml|
|Buffer||1 x 50ml|
|Isocitrate (25X)||1 x 800µl|
|Manganese (100X)||1 x 200µl|
Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab109712 in the following tested applications.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
|Functional Studies||Use at an assay dependent dilution.|
Mitochondria were isolated from HL-1 cells following starvation protocol and approximately 50μg of mitochondrial preparation were placed in each microplate well. Equal amounts of the substrate isocitrate were added to all wells and the absorbance at 240nm was recorded for 30 minutes. The catalytic activity was measured by the rate of formation of cis-aconitate as detected by the increase in absorbance.
Please note: All products are "FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY AND ARE NOT INTENDED FOR DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC USE"