Recombinant
RabMAb

Anti-AKT1 (phospho S473) antibody [EP2109Y] (HRP) (ab194201)

Overview

  • Product name
    Anti-AKT1 (phospho S473) antibody [EP2109Y] (HRP)
    See all AKT1 primary antibodies
  • Description
    Rabbit monoclonal [EP2109Y] to AKT1 (phospho S473) (HRP)
  • Conjugation
    HRP
  • Specificity
    The region of AKT1 surrounding S473 has a high degree of similarity to the corresponding regions in AKT2 and AKT3 and thus may cross react with these proteins if phosphorylated on the corresponding serine residue.
  • Tested applications
    Suitable for: IHC-Pmore details
  • Species reactivity
    Reacts with: Human
    Predicted to work with: Mouse, Rat
  • Immunogen

    Synthetic peptide (the amino acid sequence is considered to be commercially sensitive) corresponding to Human AKT1 (phospho S473).
    (Peptide available as ab171724)

  • Positive control
    • IHC-P: FFPE human breast ductal carcinoma tissue sections.
  • General notes

    Our RabMAb® technology is a patented hybridoma-based technology for making rabbit monoclonal antibodies. For details on our patents, please refer to RabMab® patents

Properties

Applications

Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab194201 in the following tested applications.

The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.

Application Abreviews Notes
IHC-P 1/100 - 1/250. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol.

Target

  • Function
    Plays a role as a key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation (By similarity). General protein kinase capable of phosphorylating several known proteins. Phosphorylates TBC1D4. Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Plays a role in glucose transport by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I. Mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1. Promotes glycogen synthesis by mediating the insulin-induced activation of glycogen synthase. The activated form can suppress FoxO gene transcription and promote cell cycle progression. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly.
  • Tissue specificity
    Expressed in all human cell types so far analyzed. The Tyr-176 phosphorylated form shows a significant increase in expression in breast cancers during the progressive stages i.e. normal to hyperplasia (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and lymph node metastatic (LNMM) stages.
  • Involvement in disease
    Defects in AKT1 are a cause of susceptibility to breast cancer (BC) [MIM:114480]. A common malignancy originating from breast epithelial tissue. Breast neoplasms can be distinguished by their histologic pattern. Invasive ductal carcinoma is by far the most common type. Breast cancer is etiologically and genetically heterogeneous. Important genetic factors have been indicated by familial occurrence and bilateral involvement. Mutations at more than one locus can be involved in different families or even in the same case.
    Defects in AKT1 are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) [MIM:114500].
    Defects in AKT1 are associated with susceptibility to ovarian cancer [MIM:604370]; also called susceptibility to familial breast-ovarian cancer type 1 (BROVCA1).
  • Sequence similarities
    Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. RAC subfamily.
    Contains 1 AGC-kinase C-terminal domain.
    Contains 1 PH domain.
    Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
  • Domain
    Binding of the PH domain to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PI(3)K) results in its targeting to the plasma membrane. The PH domain mediates interaction with TNK2 and Tyr-176 is also essential for this interaction.
    The AGC-kinase C-terminal mediates interaction with THEM4.
  • Post-translational
    modifications
    Phosphorylation on Thr-308, Ser-473 and Tyr-474 is required for full activity. Activated TNK2 phosphorylates it on Tyr-176 resulting in its binding to the anionic plasma membrane phospholipid PA. This phosphorylated form localizes to the cell membrane, where it is targeted by PDPK1 and PDPK2 for further phosphorylations on Thr-308 and Ser-473 leading to its activation. Ser-473 phosphorylation by mTORC2 favors Thr-308 phosphorylation by PDPK1. Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by interaction with AGAP2 isoform 2 (PIKE-A). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced in focal cortical dysplasias with Taylor-type balloon cells.
    Ubiquitinated; undergoes both 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination. TRAF6-induced 'Lys-63'-linked AKT1 ubiquitination is critical for phosphorylation and activation. When ubiquitinated, it translocates to the plasma membrane, where it becomes phosphorylated. When fully phosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus, undergoes 'Lys-48'-polyubiquitination catalyzed by TTC3, leading to its degradation by the proteasome.
  • Cellular localization
    Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cell membrane. Nucleus after activation by integrin-linked protein kinase 1 (ILK1). Nuclear translocation is enhanced by interaction with TCL1A. Phosphorylation on Tyr-176 by TNK2 results in its localization to the cell membrane where it is targeted for further phosphorylations on Thr-308 and Ser-473 leading to its activation and the activated form translocates to the nucleus.
  • Information by UniProt
  • Database links
  • Alternative names
    • AKT 1 antibody
    • AKT antibody
    • AKT1 antibody
    • AKT1_HUMAN antibody
    • MGC99656 antibody
    • PKB antibody
    • PKB-ALPHA antibody
    • PRKBA antibody
    • Protein Kinase B Alpha antibody
    • Protein kinase B antibody
    • Proto-oncogene c-Akt antibody
    • RAC Alpha antibody
    • RAC antibody
    • RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase antibody
    • RAC-PK-alpha antibody
    see all

Images

  • IHC image of AKT1 (phospho S473) staining in a section of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human breast ductal carcinoma*. The section was pre-treated using pressure cooker heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6) for 30mins, and incubated overnight at +4°C with ab194201 at 1µg/ml. DAB was used as the chromogen (ab103723), diluted 1/100 and incubated for 10min at room temperature. The section was counterstained with haematoxylin and mounted with DPX. The inset negative control image is taken from an identical assay without primary antibody.

    For other IHC staining systems (automated and non-automated) customers should optimize variable parameters such as antigen retrieval conditions, primary antibody concentration and antibody incubation times.

    *Tissue obtained from the Human Research Tissue Bank, supported by the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre.

References

ab194201 has not yet been referenced specifically in any publications.

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Please note: All products are "FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY AND ARE NOT INTENDED FOR DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC USE"

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