Binds copper, nickel, and fatty acids as well as, and bilirubin less well than, serum albumin. Only a small percentage (less than 2%) of the human AFP shows estrogen-binding properties.
Plasma. Synthesized by the fetal liver and yolk sac.
Belongs to the ALB/AFP/VDB family. Contains 3 albumin domains.
Occurs in the plasma of fetuses more than 4 weeks old, reaches the highest levels during the 12th-16th week of gestation, and drops to trace amounts after birth. The serum level in adults is usually less than 40 ng/ml. AFP occurs also at high levels in the plasma and ascitic fluid of adults with hepatoma.
Independent studies suggest heterogeneity of the N-terminal sequence of the mature protein and of the cleavage site of the signal sequence. Sulfated.
Liu W et al. Hepatic epithelioid angiomyolipoma is a rare and potentially severe but treatable tumor: A report of three cases and review of the literature. Oncol Lett11:3669-3675 (2016).
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