1/250 - 1/500. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
Use at an assay dependent concentration. PubMed: 23817021
Application notesIs unsuitable for Flow Cyt.
FunctionSteroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3. Isoform 3 and isoform 4 lack the C-terminal ligand-binding domain and may therefore constitutively activate the transcription of a specific set of genes independently of steroid hormones.
Tissue specificityIsoform 2 is mainly expressed in heart and skeletal muscle (PubMed:15634333). Isoform 3 is expressed by basal and stromal cells of prostate (at protein level) (PubMed:19244107).
Involvement in diseaseAndrogen insensitivity syndrome Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy X-linked 1 Defects in AR may play a role in metastatic prostate cancer. The mutated receptor stimulates prostate growth and metastases development despite of androgen ablation. This treatment can reduce primary and metastatic lesions probably by inducing apoptosis of tumor cells when they express the wild-type receptor. Androgen insensitivity, partial
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR3 subfamily. Contains 1 nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain.
DomainComposed of three domains: a modulating N-terminal domain, a DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding domain. In the presence of bound steroid the ligand-binding domain interacts with the N-terminal modulating domain, and thereby activates AR transcription factor activity. Agonist binding is required for dimerization and binding to target DNA. The transcription factor activity of the complex formed by ligand-activated AR and DNA is modulated by interactions with coactivator and corepressor proteins. Interaction with RANBP9 is mediated by both the N-terminal domain and the DNA-binding domain. Interaction with EFCAB6/DJBP is mediated by the DNA-binding domain.
Post-translational modificationsSumoylated on Lys-388 (major) and Lys-521. Ubiquitinated. Deubiquitinated by USP26. 'Lys-6' and 'Lys-27'-linked polyubiquitination by RNF6 modulates AR transcriptional activity and specificity. Phosphorylated in prostate cancer cells in response to several growth factors including EGF. Phosphorylation is induced by c-Src kinase (CSK). Tyr-535 is one of the major phosphorylation sites and an increase in phosphorylation and Src kinase activity is associated with prostate cancer progression. Phosphorylation by TNK2 enhances the DNA-binding and transcriptional activity and may be responsible for androgen-independent progression of prostate cancer. Phosphorylation at Ser-83 by CDK9 regulates AR promoter selectivity and cell growth. Phosphorylation by PAK6 leads to AR-mediated transcription inhibition. Palmitoylated by ZDHHC7 and ZDHHC21. Palmitoylation is required for plasma membrane targeting and for rapid intracellular signaling via ERK and AKT kinases and cAMP generation.
Cellular localizationNucleus. Cytoplasm. Predominantly cytoplasmic in unligated form but translocates to the nucleus upon ligand-binding. Can also translocate to the nucleus in unligated form in the presence of RACK1.
Lanes 1 - 2: Merged signal (red and green). Green - ab108341 observed at 120 kDa. Red - loading control, ab181602, observed at 37 kDa.
This blot was produced using a 4-12% Bis-tris gel under the MOPS buffer system. The gel was run at 200V for 50 minutes before being transferred onto a Nitrocellulose membrane at 30V for 70 minutes. The membrane was then blocked for an hour using Licor blocking buffer before being incubated with ab108341 and ab181602 (loading control) overnight at 4°C. Antibody binding was detected using Goat anti-Mouse IgG H&L (IRDye® 800CW) preabsorbed (ab216772) and Goat anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (IRDye® 680RD) preabsorbed (ab216777) at a 1:10000 dilution for 1hr at room temperature and then imaged.
ab108341 showing negative staining in Normal liver tissue.
References for Anti-Androgen Receptor antibody [ER179(2)] (ab108341)
This product has been referenced in:
Yin J et al. AR-regulated TWEAK-FN14 pathway promotes prostate cancer bone metastasis. Cancer Res74:4306-17 (2014).
Read more (PubMed: 24970477) »
Chen Y et al. ETS factors reprogram the androgen receptor cistrome and prime prostate tumorigenesis in response to PTEN loss. Nat Med19:1023-9 (2013).
WB, IHC-P, ChIP
Read more (PubMed: 23817021) »