The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use a concentration of 0.5 - 1.5 µg/ml. Detects a band of approximately 45 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 46 kDa).
Use a concentration of 2.5 µg/ml.
FunctionDNA deaminase (cytidine deaminase) that mediates a form of innate resistance to retroviral infections (at least to HIV-1 infection) by triggering G-to-A hypermutation in the newly synthesized viral DNA. The replacements C-to-U in the minus strand DNA of HIV-1 during reverse transcription, leads to G-to-A transitions in the plus strand. The inhibition of viral replication is either due to the degradation of the minus strand before its integration or to the lethality of the hypermutations. Modification of both DNA strands is not excluded. This antiviral activity is neutralized by the virion infectivity factor (VIF), that prevents the incorporation of APOBEC3G into progeny HIV-1 virions by both inhibiting its translation and/or by inducing its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. APOBEC3G binds a variety of RNAs, but does not display detectable APOB, NF1 and NAT1 mRNA editing.
Tissue specificityExpressed in spleen, testes, ovary and peripheral blood leukocytes and CD4+ lymphocytes. Also expressed in non-permissive peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and several tumor cell lines; no expression detected in permissive lymphoid and non-lymphoid cell lines.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the cytidine and deoxycytidylate deaminase family.
Post-translational modificationsUbiquitinated in the presence of HIV-1 VIF. Association with VIF targets the protein for proteolysis by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome pathway.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm. Nucleus. Mainly cytoplasmic. Small amount are found in the nucleus. During HIV-1 infection, virion-encapsidated in absence of HIV-1 VIF.