The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/1000. Predicted molecular weight: 163 kDa.
FunctionMay supply copper to copper-requiring proteins within the secretory pathway, when localized in the trans-Golgi network. Under conditions of elevated extracellular copper, it relocalized to the plasma membrane where it functions in the efflux of copper from cells.
Tissue specificityFound in most tissues except liver. Isoform 3 is widely expressed including in liver cell lines. Isoform 1 is expressed in fibroblasts, choriocarcinoma, colon carcinoma and neuroblastoma cell lines. Isoform 2 is expressed in fibroblasts, colon carcinoma and neuroblastoma cell lines.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in ATP7A are the cause of Menkes disease (MNKD) [MIM:309400]; also known as kinky hair disease. MNKD is an X-linked recessive disorder of copper metabolism characterized by generalized copper deficiency. MNKD results in progressive neurodegeneration and connective-tissue disturbances: focal cerebral and cerebellar degeneration, early growth retardation, peculiar hair, hypopigmentation, cutis laxa, vascular complications and death in early childhood. The clinical features result from the dysfunction of several copper-dependent enzymes. Defects in ATP7A are the cause of occipital horn syndrome (OHS) [MIM:304150]; also known as X-linked cutis laxa. OHS is an X-linked recessive disorder of copper metabolism. Common features are unusual facial appearance, skeletal abnormalities, chronic diarrhea and genitourinary defects. The skeletal abnormalities included occipital horns, short, broad clavicles, deformed radii, ulnae and humeri, narrowing of the rib cage, undercalcified long bones with thin cortical walls and coxa valga. Defects in ATP7A are a cause of distal spinal muscular atrophy X-linked type 3 (DSMAX3) [MIM:300489]. DSMAX3 is a neuromuscular disorder. Distal spinal muscular atrophy, also known as distal hereditary motor neuronopathy, represents a heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders caused by selective degeneration of motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, without sensory deficit in the posterior horn. The overall clinical picture consists of a classical distal muscular atrophy syndrome in the legs without clinical sensory loss. The disease starts with weakness and wasting of distal muscles of the anterior tibial and peroneal compartments of the legs. Later on, weakness and atrophy may expand to the proximal muscles of the lower limbs and/or to the distal upper limbs.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the cation transport ATPase (P-type) (TC 3.A.3) family. Type IB subfamily. Contains 6 HMA domains.
DomainThe C-terminal di-leucine, 1487-Leu-Leu-1488, is an endocytic targeting signal which functions in retrieving recycling from the plasma membrane to the TGN. Mutation of the di-leucine signal results in the accumulation of the protein in the plasma membrane.
Cellular localizationEndoplasmic reticulum; Cytoplasm > cytosol and Golgi apparatus > trans-Golgi network membrane. Cell membrane. Cycles constitutively between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane. Predominantly found in the TGN and relocalized to the plasma membrane in response to elevated copper levels.
Fieten H et al. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders. Dis Model Mech9:25-38 (2016).
Read more (PubMed: 26747866) »
Chen DB et al. Penicillamine increases free copper and enhances oxidative stress in the brain of toxic milk mice. PLoS One7:e37709 (2012).
Read more (PubMed: 22629446) »