The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use a concentration of 3.75 µg/ml. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
FunctionComponent of the beta-catenin destruction complex required for regulating CTNNB1 levels through phosphorylation and ubiquitination, and modulating Wnt-signaling. Controls dorsoventral patterning via two opposing effects; down-regulates CTNNB1 to inhibit the Wnt signaling pathway and ventralize embryos, but also dorsalizes embryos by activating a Wnt-independent JNK signaling pathway. In Wnt signaling, probably facilitates the phosphorylation of CTNNB1 and APC by GSK3B. Likely to function as a tumor suppressor. Facilitates the phosphorylation of TP53 by HIPK2 upon ultraviolet irradiation. Enhances TGF-beta signaling by recruiting the RNF111 E3 ubiquitin ligase and promoting the degradation of inhibitory SMAD7. Also component of the AXIN1-HIPK2-TP53 complex which controls cell growth, apoptosis and development.
Tissue specificityUbiquitously expressed.
Involvement in diseaseHepatocellular carcinoma Caudal duplication anomaly
DomainThe tankyrase-binding motif (also named TBD) is required for interaction with tankyrase TNKS and TNKS2.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylation and dephosphorylation of AXIN1 regulates assembly and function of the beta-catenin complex. Phosphorylated by CK1 and GSK3B. Dephosphorylated by PPP1CA and PPP2CA. Phosphorylation by CK1 enhances binding of GSK3B to AXIN1. ADP-ribosylated by tankyrase TNKS and TNKS2. Poly-ADP-ribosylated protein is recognized by RNF146, followed by ubiquitination at 'Lys-48' and subsequent activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Ubiquitinated by RNF146 when poly-ADP-ribosylated, leading to its degradation and subsequent activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Sumoylation at Lys-857 and Lys-860 prevents ubiquitination and degradation. Sumoylation is required for AXIN1-mediated JNK activation. Deubiquitinated by USP34, deubiquitinated downstream of beta-catenin stabilization step: deubiquitination is important for nuclear accumulation during Wnt signaling to positively regulate beta-catenin (CTNBB1)-mediated transcription.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm. Nucleus. Membrane. Cell membrane. MACF1 is required for its translocation to cell membrane (By similarity). On UV irradiation, translocates to the nucleus and colocalizes with DAAX (PubMed:17210684).
ab114205, at 3.75 ug/ml, staining Axin-1 in formalin-fixed,
paraffin-embedded Human adrenal tissue by immunohistochemistry.
Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) - Anti-Axin 1 antibody (ab115205)This image is courtesy of an anonymous Abreview
Immunohistochemical analysis of rat bladder tissue, staining Axin 1 with ab115205.
Tissue was fixed with formalin and blocked with 5000 µg/ml BSA for 30 minutes at 22°C; antigen retrieval was by heat mediation in citrate buffer (pH 6). Samples were incubated with primary antibody (1/100 in BSA) for 1 hour at 22°C. An AlexaFluor®488-conjugated donkey anti-goat polyclonal IgG (1/400) was used as the secondary antibody.