The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use at an assay dependent dilution. Detection limit for recombinant tagged BAD is approximately 30ng/ml if used as a capture antibody.
1/500 - 1/1000. Detects a band of approximately 37 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 18 kDa). This antibody has only been tested in WB against the recombinant fragment used as immunogen. We have no data on the detection of endogenous protein.
FunctionPromotes cell death. Successfully competes for the binding to Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2 and Bcl-W, thereby affecting the level of heterodimerization of these proteins with BAX. Can reverse the death repressor activity of Bcl-X(L), but not that of Bcl-2 (By similarity). Appears to act as a link between growth factor receptor signaling and the apoptotic pathways.
Tissue specificityExpressed in a wide variety of tissues.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the Bcl-2 family.
DomainIntact BH3 motif is required by BIK, BID, BAK, BAD and BAX for their pro-apoptotic activity and for their interaction with anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated on one or more of Ser-75, Ser-99, Ser-118 and Ser-134 in response to survival stimuli, which blocks its pro-apoptotic activity. Phosphorylation on Ser-99 or Ser-75 promotes heterodimerization with 14-3-3 proteins. This interaction then facilitates the phosphorylation at Ser-118, a site within the BH3 motif, leading to the release of Bcl-X(L) and the promotion of cell survival. Ser-99 is the major site of AKT/PKB phosphorylation, Ser-118 the major site of protein kinase A (CAPK) phosphorylation. Ser-75 is phosphorylated by AKT/PKB, protein kinase A and PIM2.
Cellular localizationMitochondrion outer membrane. Cytoplasm. Upon phosphorylation, locates to the cytoplasm.
Wilding C et al. ?-Synuclein antibodies have neuroprotective potential on neuroretinal cells via proteins of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. PLoS One9:e90737 (2014).
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