FunctionKey dowstream component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, forms a complex with AXIN1, AXIN2, APC, CSNK1A1 and GSK3B that promotes phosphorylation on N-terminal Ser and Thr residues and ubiquitination of CTNNB1 via BTRC and its subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In the presence of Wnt ligand, CTNNB1 is not ubiquitinated and accumulates in the nucleus, where it acts as a coactivator for transcription factors of the TCF/LEF family, leading to activate Wnt responsive genes. Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion. The majority of beta-catenin is localized to the cell membrane and is part of E-cadherin/catenin adhesion complexes which are proposed to couple cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton.
Tissue specificityExpressed in several hair follicle cell types: basal and peripheral matrix cells, and cells of the outer and inner root sheaths. Expressed in colon.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in CTNNB1 are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) [MIM:114500]. Note=Activating mutations in CTNNB1 have oncogenic activity resulting in tumor development. Somatic mutations are found in various tumor types, including colon cancers, ovarian and prostate carcinomas, hepatoblastoma (HB), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBs are malignant embryonal tumors mainly affecting young children in the first three years of life. Defects in CTNNB1 are a cause of pilomatrixoma (PTR) [MIM:132600]; a common benign skin tumor. Defects in CTNNB1 are a cause of medulloblastoma (MDB) [MIM:155255]. MDB is a malignant, invasive embryonal tumor of the cerebellum with a preferential manifestation in children. Defects in CTNNB1 are a cause of susceptibility to ovarian cancer (OC) [MIM:167000]. Ovarian cancer common malignancy originating from ovarian tissue. Although many histologic types of ovarian neoplasms have been described, epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most common form. Ovarian cancers are often asymptomatic and the recognized signs and symptoms, even of late-stage disease, are vague. Consequently, most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease. Note=A chromosomal aberration involving CTNNB1 is found in salivary gland pleiomorphic adenomas, the most common benign epithelial tumors of the salivary gland. Translocation t(3;8)(p21;q12) with PLAG1.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the beta-catenin family. Contains 12 ARM repeats.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylation by GSK3B requires prior phosphorylation of Ser-45 by another kinase. Phosphorylation proceeds then from Thr-41 to Ser-37 and Ser-33. EGF stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation on Tyr-654 decreases CDH1 binding and enhances TBP binding. Ubiquitinated by the SCF(BTRC) E3 ligase complex when phosphorylated by GSK3B, leading to its degradation. Ubiquitinated by a E3 ubiquitin ligase complex containing UBE2D1, SIAH1, CACYBP/SIP, SKP1, APC and TBL1X, leading to its subsequent proteasomal degradation.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton. Cell junction > adherens junction. Cell junction. Cell membrane. Cytoplasmic when it is unstabilized (high level of phosphorylation) or bound to CDH1. Translocates to the nucleus when it is stabilized (low level of phosphorylation). Interaction with GLIS2 and MUC1 promotes nuclear translocation. Interaction with EMD inhibits nuclear localization.
ab47426 stained LoVo cells. The cells were 4% formaldehyde fixed (10 min) and then incubated in 1%BSA / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated with the antibody ab47426 at 5µg/ml overnight at +4°C. The secondary antibody (green) was DyLight® 488 goat anti- rabbit (ab96899) IgG (H+L) used at a 1/250 dilution for 1h. Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1h. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue) at a concentration of 1.43µM.
Western blot - beta Catenin antibody (ab47426)
Lane 1 : Anti-beta Catenin antibody (ab47426) at 1/500 dilution Lane 2 : Anti-beta Catenin antibody (ab47426) at 1/500 dilution (pre-treated with immunizing peptide.)
Lane 1 : extracts from SW 626 cells Lane 2 : extracts from SW 626 cells.
Lysates/proteins at 30 µg per lane.
Predicted band size : 85 kDa Observed band size : 85 kDa Additional bands at : 30 kDa,84 kDa. We are unsure as to the identity of these extra bands.
Immunohistochemical analysis of beta catenin expression in paraffin embedded human breast carcinoma tissue using 1/50 ab47426. Left: untreated sample. Right: sample treated with immunizing peptide (negative control).Immunohistochemical analysis of beta catenin expression in paraffin embedded human breast carcinoma tissue using 1/50 ab47426. Left: untreated sample. Right: sample treated with immunizing peptide (negative control).
References for Anti-beta Catenin antibody (ab47426)
This product has been referenced in:
Larriba MJ et al. Vitamin D receptor deficiency enhances Wnt/ß-catenin signaling and tumor burden in colon cancer. PLoS One6:e23524 (2011).
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