1/50 - 1/200. Antigen retrieval is not essential but may optimise staining.
FunctionReceptor for a number of inflammatory CC-chemokines including MIP-1-alpha, MIP-1-beta and RANTES and subsequently transduces a signal by increasing the intracellular calcium ion level. May play a role in the control of granulocytic lineage proliferation or differentiation. Acts as a coreceptor (CD4 being the primary receptor) for HIV-1 R5 isolates.
Tissue specificityHighly expressed in spleen, thymus, in the myeloid cell line THP-1, in the promyeloblastic cell line KG-1A and on CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Medium levels in peripheral blood leukocytes and in small intestine. Low levels in ovary and lung.
Involvement in diseaseGenetic variation in CCR5 is associated with suseptibility to diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 22 (IDDM22) [MIM:612522]. A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
Post-translational modificationsSulfated on at least 2 of the N-terminal tyrosines. Sulfation contributes to the efficiency of HIV-1 entry and is required for efficient binding of the chemokines, CCL3 and CCL4. O-glycosylated, but not N-glycosylated. Ser-6 appears to be the major site. Also sialylated glycans present which contribute to chemokine binding. Thr-16 and Ser-17 may also be glycosylated and, if so, with small moieties such as a T-antigen. Palmitoylation in the C-terminal is important for cell surface expression, and to a lesser extent, for HIV entry. Phosphorylation on serine residues in the C-terminal is stimulated by binding CC chemokines especially by APO-RANTES.