Receptor for a number of inflammatory CC-chemokines including MIP-1-alpha, MIP-1-beta and RANTES and subsequently transduces a signal by increasing the intracellular calcium ion level. May play a role in the control of granulocytic lineage proliferation or differentiation. Acts as a coreceptor (CD4 being the primary receptor) for HIV-1 R5 isolates.
Highly expressed in spleen, thymus, in the myeloid cell line THP-1, in the promyeloblastic cell line KG-1A and on CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Medium levels in peripheral blood leukocytes and in small intestine. Low levels in ovary and lung.
Involvement in disease
Genetic variation in CCR5 is associated with suseptibility to diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 22 (IDDM22) [MIM:612522]. A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.
Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
Sulfated on at least 2 of the N-terminal tyrosines. Sulfation contributes to the efficiency of HIV-1 entry and is required for efficient binding of the chemokines, CCL3 and CCL4. O-glycosylated, but not N-glycosylated. Ser-6 appears to be the major site. Also sialylated glycans present which contribute to chemokine binding. Thr-16 and Ser-17 may also be glycosylated and, if so, with small moieties such as a T-antigen. Palmitoylation in the C-terminal is important for cell surface expression, and to a lesser extent, for HIV entry. Phosphorylation on serine residues in the C-terminal is stimulated by binding CC chemokines especially by APO-RANTES.