May participate in the regulation of T-cell-mediated immune response. May play a protective role in tumor cells by inhibiting natural-killer mediated cell lysis as well as a role of marker for detection of neuroblastoma cells. May be involved in the development of acute and chronic transplant rejection and in the regulation of lymphocytic activity at mucosal surfaces. Could also play a key role in providing the placenta and fetus with a suitable immunological environment throughout pregnancy. Both isoform 1 and isoform 2 appear to be redundant in their ability to modulate CD4 T-cell responses. Isoform 2 is shown to enhance the induction of cytotoxic T-cells and selectively stimulates interferon gamma production in the presence of T-cell receptor signaling.
Ubiquitous but not detectable in peripheral blood lymphocytes or granulocytes. Weakly expressed in resting monocytes. Expressed in dendritic cells derived from monocytes. Expressed in epithelial cells of sinonasal tissue. Expressed in extravillous trophoblast cells and Hofbauer cells of the first trimester placenta and term placenta.
Belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. BTN/MOG family. Contains 2 Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains. Contains 2 Ig-like V-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains.
IHC image of ab89133 staining in Human placenta formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica BondTM system using the standard protocol F. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20 mins. The section was then incubated with ab89133, 5µg/ml, for 15 mins at room temperature and detected using an HRP conjugated compact polymer system. DAB was used as the chromogen. The section was then counterstained with haematoxylin and mounted with DPX.
For other IHC staining systems (automated and non-automated) customers should optimize variable parameters such as antigen retrieval conditions, primary antibody concentration and antibody incubation times.
Overlay histogram showing THP1 cells stained with ab89133 (red line). The cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde (10 min) and then permeabilized with 0.1% PBS-Tween for 20 min. The cells were then incubated in 1x PBS / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine to block non-specific protein-protein interactions followed by the antibody (ab89133, 1/100 dilution) for 30 min at 22ºC. The secondary antibody used was DyLight® 488 goat anti-mouse IgG (H+L) (ab96879) at 1/500 dilution for 30 min at 22ºC. Isotype control antibody (black line) was mouse IgG1 [ICIGG1] (ab91353, 2µg/1x106 cells) used under the same conditions. Acquisition of >5,000 events was performed.