Proposed scaffold protein that is implicated in diverse physiological processes and whose function may be in part linked to its ability to regulate ubiquitination of specific cellular proteins. Can modulate activity of cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complexes by displacing CAND1; in vitro promotes CRL E3 activity and dissociates CAND1 from CUL1 and CUL2 (PubMed:21778237). Promotes ubiquitination of NF-kappa-B subunit RELA and its subsequent proteasomal degradation. Down-regulates NF-kappa-B activity (PubMed:15799966, PubMed:17183367, PubMed:20048074). Involved in the regulation of membrane expression and ubiquitination of SLC12A2 (PubMed:23515529). Modulates Na(+) transport in epithelial cells by regulation of apical cell surface expression of amiloride-sensitive sodium channel (ENaC) subunits and by promoting their ubiquitination presumably involving NEDD4L. Promotes the localization of SCNN1D to recycling endosomes (PubMed:14645214, PubMed:20237237, PubMed:21741370). Promotes CFTR cell surface expression through regulation of its ubiquitination (PubMed:21483833). Down-regulates SOD1 activity by interfering with its homodimerization (PubMed:20595380). Plays a role in copper ion homeostasis. Involved in copper-dependent ATP7A trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and vesicles in the cell periphery; the function is proposed to depend on its association within the CCC complex and cooperation with the WASH complex on early endosomes (PubMed:25355947). Can bind one copper ion per monomer (PubMed:17309234). May function to facilitate biliary copper excretion within hepatocytes. Binds to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) (PubMed:18940794). Involved in the regulation of HIF1A-mediated transcription; competes with ARNT/Hif-1-beta for binding to HIF1A resulting in decreased DNA binding and impaired transcriptional activation by HIF-1 (PubMed:20458141).
Ubiquitous. Highest expression in the liver, with lower expression in brain, lung, placenta, pancreas, small intestine, heart, skeletal muscle, kidney and placenta. Down-regulated in cancer tissues.
Contains 1 COMM domain.
Acetylated by EP300 ina stimuli-specific manner; protecting it from XIAP-mediated proteasomal degradation and required for interaction with RElA in response to stress. Ubiquitinated; undergoes both 'Lys-63'- and 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination. Ubiquitinated by XIAP, leading to its proteasomal degradation.
Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Endosome membrane. Cytoplasmic vesicle. Early endosome. Recycling endosome. Shuttles between nucleus and cytosol. Detected in perinuclear foci that may be aggresomes containing misfolded, ubiquitinated proteins.