The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Application notesIHC-P: Use neat for 30-60 minutes at room temperature.
Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections require high temperature antigen unmasking with 1 mM EDTA buffer, pH 8.0 prior to immunostaining.
IHC-Fr (acetone-fixed): Use neat for 30-60 minutes at room temperature.
Not yet tested in other applications.
Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
FunctionPlays a significant role in maintaining keratin filament organization in intestinal epithelia. When phosphorylated, plays a role in the secretion of mucin in the small intestine.
Tissue specificityExpressed predominantly in the intestinal epithelium. Expressed in luminal cells of colonic mucosa. Also expressed in the Merkel cells of keratinized oral mucosa; specifically at the tips of some rete ridges of the gingival mucosa, in the basal layer of the palatal mucosa and in the taste buds of lingual mucosa.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the intermediate filament family.
Developmental stageFirst detected at embryonic week 8 in individual 'converted' simple epithelial cells of the developing intestinal mucosa. In later fetal stages, synthesis extends over most goblet cells and a variable number of villus enterocytes. In the developing gastric and intestinal mucosa, expressed in all enterocytes and goblet cells as well as certain 'low-differentiated' columnar cells, whereas the neuroendocrine and Paneth cells are negative.
Post-translational modificationsHyperphosphorylation at Ser-13 occurs during the early stages of apoptosis but becomes less prominent during the later stages. Phosphorylation at Ser-13 also increases in response to stress brought on by cell injury. Proteolytically cleaved by caspases during apoptosis. Cleavage occurs at Asp-228.