The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use a concentration of 1 µg/ml. Detects a band of approximately 82 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 82 kDa).
1/400. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
Use a concentration of 5 µg/ml.
Acts as an ATP-dependent RNA helicase, able to unwind both RNA-RNA and RNA-DNA duplexes. Possesses 5' single-stranded RNA overhang nuclease activity. Possesses ATPase activity on various RNA, but not DNA polynucleotides. May play a role in RNA clearance at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), thereby facilitating the template-guided repair of transcriptionally active regions of the genome. Together with RELA, acts as a coactivator to enhance NF-kappa-B-mediated transcriptional activation. Acts as a positive transcriptional regulator of cyclin CCND2 expression. Binds to the cyclin CCND2 promoter region. Associates with chromatin at the NF-kappa-B promoter region via association with RELA. Binds to poly(A) RNA. May be involved in 3'-end cleavage and polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs. Required for HIV-1 Rev function as well as for HIV-1 replication. Binds to the RRE sequence of HIV-1 mRNAs.
Highest levels of transcription in 2 retinoblastoma cell lines and in tissues of neuroectodermal origin including the retina, brain, and spinal cord.
Belongs to the DEAD box helicase family. DDX1 subfamily. Contains 1 B30.2/SPRY domain. Contains 1 helicase ATP-binding domain. Contains 1 helicase C-terminal domain.
The helicase domain is involved in the stimulation of RELA transcriptional activity.
Phosphorylated. Phosphorylated by ATM kinase; phosphorylation is increased in response to ionizing radiation (IR).
Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic granule. Localized with MBNL1, TIAL1 and YBX1 in stress granules upon stress. Localized with CSTF2 in cleavage bodies. Forms large aggregates called DDX1 bodies. Relocalized into multiple foci (IR-induced foci or IRIF) after IR treatment, a process that depends on the presence of chromosomal DNA and/or RNA-DNA duplexes. Relocalized at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in an ATM-dependent manner after IR treatment. Colocalized with RELA in the nucleus upon TNF-alpha induction. Relocalized to the cytoplasm with a perinuclear staining pattern in avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)-infected cells. Required for proper localization of HIV-1 Rev.
Image courtesy of Human Protein Atlas. ab31963 staining DDX1 in human gall bladder. Paraffin embedded human gall bladder tissue was incubated with ab316963 (1/400 dilution) for 30 mins at room temperature. Antigen retrieval was performed by heat induction in citrate buffer pH 6.
ab31963 was tested in a tissue microarray (TMA) containing a wide range of normal and cancer tissues. Further results for this antibody can be found at www.proteinatlas.org
ICC/IF image of ab31963 stained HepG2 cells. The cells were 4% PFA fixed (10 min) and then incubated in 1%BSA / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated with the antibody (ab31963, 5µg/ml) overnight at +4°C. The secondary antibody (green) was ab96899 Dylight® 488 goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) used at a 1/250 dilution for 1h. Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1h. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue) at a concentration of 1.43µM.