Required for genome wide de novo methylation and is essential for the establishment of DNA methylation patterns during development. DNA methylation is coordinated with methylation of histones. May preferentially methylates nucleosomal DNA within the nucleosome core region. May function as transcriptional co-repressor by associating with CBX4 and independently of DNA methylation. Seems to be involved in gene silencing (By similarity). In association with DNMT1 and via the recruitment of CTCFL/BORIS, involved in activation of BAG1 gene expression by modulating dimethylation of promoter histone H3 at H3K4 and H3K9. Isoforms 4 and 5 are probably not functional due to the deletion of two conserved methyltransferase motifs.
Ubiquitous; highly expressed in fetal liver, heart, kidney, placenta, and at lower levels in spleen, colon, brain, liver, small intestine, lung, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and skeletal muscle. Isoform 1 is expressed in all tissues except brain, skeletal muscle and PBMC, 3 is ubiquitous, 4 is expressed in all tissues except brain, skeletal muscle, lung and prostate and 5 is detectable only in testis and at very low level in brain and prostate.
Involvement in disease
Defects in DNMT3B are a cause of immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome (ICF) [MIM:242860]. ICF is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a variable immunodeficiency, mild facial anomalies, and centromeric heterochromatin instability involving chromosomes 1, 9, and 16. ICF is biochemically characterized by hypomethylation of CpG sites in some regions of heterochromatin.
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