The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/1000 - 1/2000. Use 2% paraformaldehyde-fixed cells.
4% PFA-fixed, paraffin-embedded section.
Seems to be required for initial steps of neuronal dispersion and cortex lamination during cerebral cortex development. May act by competing with the putative neuronal protein kinase DCAMKL1 in binding to a target protein. May in that way participate in a signaling pathway that is crucial for neuronal interaction before and during migration, possibly as part of a calcium ion-dependent signal transduction pathway. May be part with LIS-1 of an overlapping, but distinct, signaling pathways that promote neuronal migration.
Highly expressed in neuronal cells of fetal brain (in the majority of cells of the cortical plate, intermediate zone and ventricular zone), but not expressed in other fetal tissues. In the adult, highly expressed in the brain frontal lobe, but very low expression in other regions of brain, and not detected in heart, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscles, kidney and pancreas.
Involvement in disease
Defects in DCX are the cause of lissencephaly X-linked type 1 (LISX1) [MIM:300067]; also called X-LIS or LIS. LISX1 is a classic lissencephaly characterized by mental retardation and seizures that are more severe in male patients. Affected boys show an abnormally thick cortex with absent or severely reduced gyri. Clinical manifestations include feeding problems, abnormal muscular tone, seizures and severe to profound psychomotor retardation. Female patients display a less severe phenotype referred to as 'doublecortex'. Defects in DCX are the cause of subcortical band heterotopia X-linked (SBHX) [MIM:300067]; also known as double cortex or subcortical laminar heterotopia (SCLH). SBHX is a mild brain malformation of the lissencephaly spectrum. It is characterized by bilateral and symmetric plates or bands of gray matter found in the central white matter between the cortex and cerebral ventricles, cerebral convolutions usually appearing normal. Note=A chromosomal aberration involving DCX is found in lissencephaly. Translocation t(X;2)(q22.3;p25.1).