The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2, EM-1) and endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2, EM-2)are endogenous tetrapeptides derived from an unknown precursor and have the highest affinity and selectivity for the mu-opioid receptor (MOP-R) of all known mammalian opioids.
They have been isolated from bovine and human brain, and have a potent antinociceptive activity (inhibition of pain perception) and are involved in a number of physiological processes, including food intake, vasomotricity, sexual behavior, as well as neuroendocrine and cardiorespiratory functions.
Opioidmimetics and opioid peptides containing the amino acid sequence of the message domain of endomorphins, Tyr-Pro-Phe/Trp, could exhibit unique binding activity and lead to the development of new therapeutic drugs for controlling pain.
Luo DS et al. Connections between EM2- and SP-containing terminals and GABAergic neurons in the mouse spinal dorsal horn. Neurol Sci35:1421-7 (2014).
Read more (PubMed: 24718557) »
Dou XL et al. Synaptic Connections between Endomorphin 2-Immunoreactive Terminals and µ-Opioid Receptor-Expressing Neurons in the Sacral Parasympathetic Nucleus of the Rat. PLoS One8:e62028 (2013).
Read more (PubMed: 23671582) »