The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/100 - 1/250. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
1/10 - 1/100.
1/1000 - 1/10000. Detects a band of approximately 155 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 166 kDa).
Required for maintenance of chromosomal stability. Promotes accurate and efficient pairing of homologs during meiosis. Involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, both by homologous recombination and single-strand annealing. May participate in S phase and G2 phase checkpoint activation upon DNA damage. Promotes BRCA2/FANCD1 loading onto damaged chromatin. May also be involved in B-cell immunoglobulin isotype switching.
Highly expressed in germinal center cells of the spleen, tonsil, and reactive lymph nodes, and in the proliferating basal layer of squamous epithelium of tonsil, esophagus, oropharynx, larynx and cervix. Expressed in cytotrophoblastic cells of the placenta and exocrine cells of the pancreas (at protein level). Highly expressed in testis, where expression is restricted to maturing spermatocytes.
Involvement in disease
Defects in FANCD2 are a cause of Fanconi anemia complementation group D type 2 (FANCD2) [MIM:227646]. It is a disorder affecting all bone marrow elements and resulting in anemia, leukopenia and thrombopenia. It is associated with cardiac, renal and limb malformations, dermal pigmentary changes, and a predisposition to the development of malignancies. At the cellular level it is associated with hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, chromosomal instability (increased chromosome breakage) and defective DNA repair.
Highly expressed in fetal oocytes, and in hematopoietic cells of the fetal liver and bone marrow (at protein level).
The C-terminal 24 residues of isoform 2 are required for its function.
Monoubiquitinated on Lys-561 during S phase and upon genotoxic stress (isoform 1 and isoform 2). Deubiquitinated by USP1 as cells enter G2/M, or once DNA repair is completed. Monoubiquitination requires the FANCA-FANCB-FANCC-FANCE-FANCF-FANCG-FANCM complex, RPA1 and ATR, and is mediated by FANCL/PHF9. Ubiquitination is required for binding to chromatin, interaction with BRCA1, BRCA2 and MTMR15/FAN1, DNA repair, and normal cell cycle progression, but not for phosphorylation on Ser-222 or interaction with MEN1. Phosphorylated in response to various genotoxic stresses by ATM and/or ATR. Upon ionizing radiation, phosphorylated by ATM on Ser-222 and Ser-1404. Phosphorylation on Ser-222 is required for S-phase checkpoint activation, but not for ubiquitination, foci formation, or DNA repair. In contrast, phosphorylation by ATR on other sites may be required for ubiquitination and foci formation.
Nucleus. Concentrates in nuclear foci during S phase and upon genotoxic stress.
Western blot - Anti-FANCD2 antibody [EPR2302] (ab108928)
Predicted band size : 166 kDa
Lane 1: Wild-type HAP1 cell lysate (20 µg) Lane 2: FANCD2 knockout HAP1 cell lysate (20 µg) Lane 3: HeLa cell lysate (20 µg) Lane 4: HEK293 cell lysate (20 µg) Lanes 1 - 4: Merged signal (red and green). Green - ab108928 observed at 165 kDa. Red - loading control, ab8245, observed at 37 kDa.
ab108928 was shown to specifically react with FANCD2 when FANCD2 knockout samples were used. Wild-type and FANCD2 knockout samples were subjected to SDS-PAGE. ab108928 and ab8245 (loading control to GAPDH) were diluted 1/1000 and 1/2000 respectively and incubated overnight at 4°C. Blots were developed with Goat anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (IRDye® 800CW) preadsorbed (ab216773) and Goat anti-Mouse IgG H&L (IRDye® 680RD) preadsorbed (ab216776) secondary antibodies at 1/10 000 dilution for 1 h at room temperature before imaging.
ab108928 staining FANCD2 in wild-type HAP1 cells (top panel) and FANCD2 knockout HAP1 cells (bottom panel). The cells were fixed with 4% formaldehyde (10min), permeabilized with 0.1% Triton X-100 for 5 minutes and then blocked with 1% BSA/10% normal goat serum/0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h. The cells were then incubated with ab108928 at 1/250 dilution and ab195889 at 1/250 dilution (shown in pseudo colour red) overnight at +4°C, followed by a further incubation at room temperature for 1h with a goat secondary antibody to Rabbit IgG (Alexa Fluor® 488) (ab150081) at 2 μg/ml (shown in green). Nuclear DNA was labelled in blue with DAPI.
Flow cytometry analysis of Jurkat (human acute T cell leukemia) cells labeling FANCD2 (red) with ab108928 at a 1/2000 dilution. Cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and permeabilized with 90% methanol. A goat anti-rabbit IgG (Alexa Fluor® 488) (ab150077) was used as the secondary antibody at a 1/2000 dilution. Black - Rabbit monoclonal IgG (ab172730). Blue (unlabeled control) - Cells without incubation with primary and secondary antibodies.
Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence - Anti-FANCD2 antibody [EPR2302] (ab108928)This image is courtesy of an anonymous Abreview
ab108928 staining FANCD2 in Human U2OS osteosarcoma cells by ICC/IF (Immunocytochemistry/immunofluorescence). Cells were fixed with paraformaldehyde, permeabilized with 0.5% Triton X-100 and blocked with 10% goat serum for 1 hour at 20°C. Samples were incubated with primary antibody (1/300) for 18 hours at 4°C. An Alexa Fluor® 488-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG monoclonal (1/1000) was used as the secondary antibody.