The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use at an assay dependent concentration.
FOXO1 + FOX3 + FOX4 belong to the forkhead family of transcription factors.
FOXO1 (FKHR or ForkHead in Rhabdomyosarcoma) is a 70 kDa protein. Recent studies have shown that this protein can act as either a coactivator or a corepressor of nuclear receptor activity. This action is mediated through the LXXLL motif found in the C terminus of the FOXO1A protein. The specific function of the gene has not yet been determined.
FOX3 probably functions as a trigger for apoptosis through expression of genes necessary for cell death. Translocation of the FOXO3 gene with the MLL gene is associated with secondary acute leukemia.
FOX4 is a forkhead transcription factor involved in the regulation of the insulin signaling pathway. It binds to insulin-response elements (IREs) and can activate transcription of IGFBP1. FOXO4 down-regulates expression of HIF1A and suppresses hypoxia-induced transcriptional activation of HIF1A-modulated genes. It is also involved in negative regulation of the cell cycle.
FOXO1: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Shuttles between cytoplasm and nucleus.
FOX3: Cytoplasm, cytosol. Translocates to the nucleus upon oxidative stress and in the absence of survival factors.
FOX4: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. When phosphorylated, translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm. Dephosphorylation triggers nuclear translocation.
This image shows human breast carcinoma tissue stained with ab58518 at 1/50 dilution. Right hand image; tissue treated with immunising non phosphopeptide. Left hand image; without immunising non phosphopeptide.