The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Application notesICC/IF: Use at a concentration of 5 µg/ml.
WB: Use at a concentration of 1 - 2 µg/ml. Detects a band of approximately 62 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 54 kDa).
Not yet tested in other applications.
Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
FunctionTranscription factor involved in the regulation of the insulin signaling pathway. Binds to insulin-response elements (IREs) and can activate transcription of IGFBP1. Down-regulates expression of HIF1A and suppresses hypoxia-induced transcriptional activation of HIF1A-modulated genes. Also involved in negative regulation of the cell cycle.
Tissue specificityHeart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas. Isoform zeta is most abundant in the liver, kidney, and pancreas.
Involvement in diseaseNote=A chromosomal aberration involving FOXO4 is found in acute leukemias. Translocation t(X;11)(q13;q23) with MLL/HRX. The result is a rogue activator protein.
Post-translational modificationsAcetylation by CBP, which is induced by peroxidase stress, inhibits transcriptional activity. Deacetylation by SIRT1 is NAD-dependent and stimulates transcriptional activity. Phosphorylation by PKB/AKT1 inhibits transcriptional activity and is responsible for cytoplasmic localization. Monoubiquitinated; monoubiquitination is induced by oxidative stress and reduced by deacetylase inhibitors; results in its relocalization to the nucleus and its increased transcriptional activity. Deubiquitinated by USP7; deubiquitination is induced by oxidative stress; enhances its interaction with USP7 and consequently, deubiquitination; increases its translocation to the cytoplasm and inhibits its transcriptional activity. Hydrogene-peroxide-induced ubiquitination and USP7-mediated deubiquitination have no major effect on its protein stability.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm. Nucleus. When phosphorylated, translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm. Dephosphorylation triggers nuclear translocation. Monoubiquitination increases nuclear localization. When deubiquitinated, translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm.
ICC/IF image of ab2560 stained HeLa cells. The cells were 4% formaldehyde fixed (10 min) and then incubated in 1%BSA / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated with the antibody (ab2560, 5µg/ml) overnight at +4°C. The secondary antibody (green) was Alexa Fluor® 488 goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) used at a 1/1000 dilution for 1h. Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1h. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue) at a concentration of 1.43µM.
References for Anti-FOXO4 (phospho S193) antibody (ab2560)
has not yet been referenced specifically in any publications.
Publishing research using ab2560? Please let us know so that we can cite the reference in this datasheet.
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