The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Flow Cyt: Use 20µl for 106 cells or 100µl whole blood.
Not yet tested in other applications.
Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Glycophorins A (GYPA) and B (GYPB) are major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane which bear the antigenic determinants for the MN and Ss blood groups. GYPA gene consists of 7 exons and has 97% sequence homology with GYPB from the 5' UTR to the coding sequence encoding the first 45 amino acids. GYPB accounts for S, s and U specificities. GPA and GPB provide the cells with a large mucin-like surface and it has been suggested this provides a barrier to cell fusion, so minimizing aggregation between red blood cells in the circulation.
In addition to the M or N and S or s antigens, that commonly occur in all populations, about 40 related variant phenotypes have been identified. These variants include all the variants of the Miltenberger complex and several isoforms of Sta; also, Dantu, Sat, He, Mg, and deletion variants Ena, S-s-U- and Mk. Most of the variants are resulted from gene recombinations between GYPA and GYPB.
These antigens are expressed on early erythroblasts, late erythroblasts, erythroblasts, mature erythrocytes and the cells of erythroid cell lines K562 and HEL, but not on all other cells (mature erythrocytes are characteristically CD235a positive and CD45 and CD71 negative).