Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. May be involved in the transmission of light information from the retina to the hypothalamus. Modulates cell surface expression of NETO2.
Expression is higher in cerebellum than in cerebral cortex.
Involvement in disease
Defects in GRIK2 are the cause of mental retardation autosomal recessive type 6 (MRT6) [MIM:611092]. It is characterized by significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning associated with impairments in adaptative behavior and manifested during the developmental period. In contrast to syndromic or specific mental retardation which also present with associated physical, neurological and/or psychiatric manifestations, intellectual deficiency is the only primary symptom of non-syndromic mental retardation. MRT6 patients display mild to severe mental retardation and psychomotor development delay in early childhood. Patients do not have neurologic problems, congenital malformations, or facial dysmorphism. Body height, weight, and head circumference are normal.
Belongs to the glutamate-gated ion channel (TC 1.A.10.1) family. GRIK2 subfamily.
Sumoylation mediates kainate receptor-mediated endocytosis and regulates synaptic transmission. Sumoylation is enhanced by PIAS3 and desumoylated by SENP1. Ubiquitinated. Ubiquitination regulates the GRIK2 levels at the synapse by leading kainate receptor degradation through proteasome.
ICC/IF image of ab66440 stained SHSY5Y cells. The cells were 100% methanol fixed (5 min) and then incubated in 1%BSA / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated with the antibody (ab66440, 1/1000 dilution) overnight at +4°C. The secondary antibody (green) was Alexa Fluor® 488 goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) used at a 1/1000 dilution for 1h. Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1h. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue) at a concentration of 1.43µM.