The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Application notesICC/IF: Use at a concentration of 10 µg/ml.
IHC-P: Use at a concentration of 3 µg/ml. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval via the microwave method in 1X citrate buffer (pH 6.0) before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
WB: Use at a concentration of 1 µg/ml. Predicted molecular weight: 17 kDa.
Not yet tested in other applications.
Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
FunctionAccessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone. Involved in the interferon/all-trans-retinoic acid (IFN/RA) induced cell death. This apoptotic activity is inhibited by interaction with viral IRF1. Prevents the transactivation of STAT3 target genes. May play a role in CARD15-mediated innate mucosal responses and serve to regulate intestinal epithelial cell responses to microbes.
Tissue specificityWidely expressed, with highest expression in heart, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney and placenta. In intestinal mucosa, down-regulated in areas involved in Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in NDUFA13 may be a cause of susceptibility to Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC) [MIM:607464]. Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma accounts for approximately 3% of all thyroid cancers. Although they are classified as variants of follicular neoplasms, they are more often multifocal and somewhat more aggressive and are less likely to take up iodine than are other follicular neoplasms.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the complex I NDUFA13 subunit family.
Developmental stageExpressed in numerous fetal tissues.
Cellular localizationMitochondrion inner membrane. Nucleus. May be translocated into the nucleus upon IFN/RA treatment.