This antibody gave a positive signal in the following whole cell lysates: HeLa; HEK293; U20S; HepG2; NIH3T3.
This antibody gave a positive result when used in the following formaldehyde fixed cell lines: HeLa.
Storage instructionsShipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use with paraformaldehyde fixed cells.
Use a concentration of 1 µg/ml. Detects a band of approximately 119 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 119 kDa). Abcam recommends using milk as the blocking agent (3%)
FunctionResponsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. Involved in muscle maturation via its interaction with the myocyte enhancer factors such as MEF2A, MEF2C and MEF2D.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in HDAC4 are the cause of brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome (BDMR) [MIM:600430]. A syndrome resembling the physical anomalies found in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy. Common features are mild facial dysmorphism, congenital heart defects, distinct brachydactyly type E, mental retardation, developmental delay, seizures, autism spectrum disorder, and stocky build. Soft tissue ossification is absent, and there are no abnormalities in parathyroid hormone or calcium metabolism.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the histone deacetylase family. HD type 2 subfamily.
DomainThe nuclear export sequence mediates the shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated by CaMK4 at Ser-246, Ser-467 and Ser-632. Phosphorylation at other residues is required for the interaction with 14-3-3. Sumoylation on Lys-559 is promoted by the E3 SUMO-protein ligase RANBP2, and prevented by phosphorylation by CaMK4.
Cellular localizationNucleus. Cytoplasm. Shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Upon muscle cells differentiation, it accumulates in the nuclei of myotubes, suggesting a positive role of nuclear HDAC4 in muscle differentiation. The export to cytoplasm depends on the interaction with a 14-3-3 chaperone protein and is due to its phosphorylation at Ser-246, Ser-467 and Ser-632 by CaMK4. The nuclear localization probably depends on sumoylation.
Lane 1: Wild-type HAP1 cell lysate (20 µg) Lane 2: HDAC4 knockout HAP1 cell lysate (20 µg) Lane 3: NIH3T3 cell lysate (20 µg) Lane 4: HeLa cell lysate (20 µg) Lanes 1 - 4: Merged signal (red and green). Green - ab111318 observed at 140 kDa. Red - loading control, ab8245, observed at 37 kDa. ab111318 was shown to recognize HDAC4 when HDAC4 knockout samples were used, along with additional cross-reactive bands. Wild-type and HDAC4 knockout samples were subjected to SDS-PAGE. ab111318 and ab8245 (loading control to GAPDH) were both diluted 1 µg/ml and 1/10000 respectively and incubated overnight at 4°C. Blots were developed with goat anti-rabbit IgG (H + L) and goat anti-mouse IgG (H + L) secondary antibodies at 1/10000 dilution for 1 hour at room temperature before imaging.
ICC/IF image of ab111318 stained HeLa cells. The cells were 4% formaldehyde fixed (10 min) and then incubated in 1%BSA / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated with the antibody ab111318 at 5µg/ml overnight at +4°C. The secondary antibody (green) was DyLight® 488 goat anti- rabbit (ab96899) IgG (H+L) used at a 1/250 dilution for 1h. Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1h. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue) at a concentration of 1.43µM.
Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence - Anti-HDAC4 antibody (ab111318)Image courtesy of an Abreview submitted by Dr. Kirk McManus, Univ. of Manitoba/Cancer Care MICB, Canada.
ab111318 (1/200) staining HDAC4 in HeLa cells (green). Cells were fixed in paraformaldehyde, permeabilised in 0.5% Triton X-100/PBS and counterstained with DAPI in order to highlight the nucleus (red). For further experimental details please refer to Abreview.