The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/1000. Detects a band of approximately 125 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 111 kDa).
1/50 - 1/100.
FunctionResponsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Represses MEF2-dependent transcription. Isoform 3 lacks active site residues and therefore is catalytically inactive. Represses MEF2-dependent transcription by recruiting HDAC1 and/or HDAC3. Seems to inhibit skeletal myogenesis and to be involved in heart development. Protects neurons from apoptosis, both by inhibiting JUN phosphorylation by MAPK10 and by repressing JUN transcription via HDAC1 recruitment to JUN promoter.
Tissue specificityBroadly expressed, with highest levels in brain, heart, muscle and testis. Isoform 3 is present in human bladder carcinoma cells (at protein level).
Involvement in diseaseNote=A chromosomal aberration involving HDAC9 is found in a family with Peters anomaly. Translocation t(1;7)(q41;p21) with TGFB2 resulting in lack of HDAC9 protein.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the histone deacetylase family. HD type 2 subfamily.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated on Ser-220 and Ser-450; which promotes 14-3-3-binding, impairs interaction with MEF2, and antagonizes antimyogenic activity. Phosphorylated on Ser-240; which impairs nuclear accumulation (By similarity). Isoform 7 is phosphorylated on Tyr-1010. Phosphorylated by the PKC kinases PKN1 and PKN2, impairing nuclear import. Sumoylated.