The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/2000. Predicted molecular weight: 96 kDa.
Transcription factor involved in the induction of oxygen regulated genes. Binds to core DNA sequence 5'-[AG]CGTG-3' within the hypoxia response element (HRE) of target gene promoters. Regulates the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and seems to be implicated in the development of blood vessels and the tubular system of lung. May also play a role in the formation of the endothelium that gives rise to the blood brain barrier. Potent activator of the Tie-2 tyrosine kinase expression. Activation seems to require recruitment of transcriptional coactivators such as CREBPB and probably EP300. Interaction with redox regulatory protein APEX seems to activate CTAD.
Expressed in most tissues, with highest levels in placenta, lung and heart. Selectively expressed in endothelial cells.
Involvement in disease
Defects in EPAS1 are the cause of erythrocytosis familial type 4 (ECYT4) [MIM:611783]. ECYT4 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased serum red blood cell mass, elevated hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit, and normal platelet and leukocyte counts.
In normoxia, is probably hydroxylated on Pro-405 and Pro-531 by EGLN1/PHD1, EGLN2/PHD2 and/or EGLN3/PHD3. The hydroxylated prolines promote interaction with VHL, initiating rapid ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Under hypoxia, proline hydroxylation is impaired and ubiquitination is attenuated, resulting in stabilization. In normoxia, is hydroxylated on Asn-847 by HIF1AN thus probably abrogating interaction with CREBBP and EP300 and preventing transcriptional activation. Phosphorylated on multiple sites in the CTAD. The iron and 2-oxoglutarate dependent 3-hydroxylation of asparagine is (S) stereospecific within HIF CTAD domains.