The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use a concentration of 1 µg/ml. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
Use at an assay dependent concentration. Predicted molecular weight: 11 kDa.
Use at an assay dependent concentration.
Use at an assay dependent concentration.
Use a concentration of 5 µg/ml.
Use 1µg for 106 cells.
ab170190 - Mouse monoclonal IgG1, is suitable for use as an isotype control with this antibody.
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Belongs to the histone H4 family.
Acetylation at Lys-6 (H4K5ac), Lys-9 (H4K8ac), Lys-13 (H4K12ac) and Lys-17 (H4K16ac) occurs in coding regions of the genome but not in heterochromatin. Citrullination at Arg-4 (H4R3ci) by PADI4 impairs methylation. Monomethylation and asymmetric dimethylation at Arg-4 (H4R3me1 and H4R3me2a, respectively) by PRMT1 favors acetylation at Lys-9 (H4K8ac) and Lys-13 (H4K12ac). Demethylation is performed by JMJD6. Symmetric dimethylation on Arg-4 (H4R3me2s) by the PRDM1/PRMT5 complex may play a crucial role in the germ-cell lineage. Monomethylated, dimethylated or trimethylated at Lys-21 (H4K20me1, H4K20me2, H4K20me3). Monomethylation is performed by SET8. Trimethylation is performed by SUV420H1 and SUV420H2 and induces gene silencing. Phosphorylated by PAK2 at Ser-48 (H4S47ph). This phosphorylation increases the association of H3.3-H4 with the histone chaperone HIRA, thus promoting nucleosome assembly of H3.3-H4 and inhibiting nucleosome assembly of H3.1-H4. Ubiquitinated by the CUL4-DDB-RBX1 complex in response to ultraviolet irradiation. This may weaken the interaction between histones and DNA and facilitate DNA accessibility to repair proteins. Monoubiquitinated at Lys-92 of histone H4 (H4K91ub1) in response to DNA damage. The exact role of H4K91ub1 in DNA damage response is still unclear but it may function as a licensing signal for additional histone H4 post-translational modifications such as H4 Lys-21 methylation (H4K20me). Sumoylated, which is associated with transcriptional repression. Crotonylation (Kcr) is specifically present in male germ cells and marks testis-specific genes in post-meiotic cells, including X-linked genes that escape sex chromosome inactivation in haploid cells. Crotonylation marks active promoters and enhancers and confers resistance to transcriptional repressors. It is also associated with post-meiotically activated genes on autosomes.
Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence - Anti-Histone H4 (di methyl K20, tri methyl K20) antibody [6F8-D9] (ab78517)Image courtesy of Maki Asami, University of Bath, U.K.
ICC/IF image of ab78517 stained mouse oocyte. Oocytes were fixed in formaldehyde and then incubated in 3% serum with 0.25% Triton for 30 minutes at 37°C. Cells were incubated with the antibody (ab78517) at 1/200 for 2 hours at 37°C. The secondary antibody used was a polyclonal Goat-anti-mouse conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 (1/250).
ICC/IF image of ab78517 stained HeLa cells. The cells were 100% methanol fixed (5 min) and then incubated in 1%BSA / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated with the antibody (ab78517, 5µg/ml) overnight at +4°C. The secondary antibody (green) was Alexa Fluor® 488 goat anti-mouse IgG (H+L) used at a 1/1000 dilution for 1h. Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1h. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue) at a concentration of 1.43µM. This antibody also gave a positive result in 100% methanol fixed (5 min) Hek293, HepG2 and MCF7 cells at 5µg/ml, and in 4% PFA fixed (10 min) HeLa, Hek293, HepG2 and MCF7 cells at 5µg/ml.
IHC image of Histone H4 (tri methyl K20) staining in normal human skin formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica BondTM system using the standard protocol F. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20 mins. The section was then incubated with ab78517, 1µg/ml, for 15 mins at room temperature and detected using an HRP conjugated compact polymer system. DAB was used as the chromogen. The section was then counterstained with haematoxylin and mounted with DPX.
Overlay histogram showing HeLa cells stained with ab78517 (red line). The cells were fixed with 80% methanol (5 min) and then permeabilized with 0.1% PBS-Tween for 20 min. The cells were then incubated in 1x PBS / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine to block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated with the antibody (ab78517, 1µg/1x106 cells) for 30 min at 22ºC. The secondary antibody used was DyLight® 488 goat anti-mouse IgG (H+L) (ab96879) at 1/500 dilution for 30 min at 22ºC. Isotype control antibody (black line) was mouse IgG1 [ICIGG1] (ab91353, 2µg/1x106 cells ) used under the same conditions. Acquisition of >5,000 events was performed.