Human Does not react with:
Mouse, Rat, Rabbit, Goat, Guinea pig, Hamster, Cow, Dog, Pig, Cynomolgus monkey, Macaque monkey
Abcam’s alpha 1 Antitrypsin (SERPINA1) in vitro SimpleStep ELISA™ (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the quantitative measurement of alpha 1 Antitrypsin protein in human serum and plasma samples.
The SimpleStep ELISA™ employs an affinity tag labeled capture antibody and a reporter conjugated detector antibody which immunocapture the sample analyte in solution. This entire complex (capture antibody/analyte/detector antibody) is in turn immobilized via immunoaffinity of an anti-tag antibody coating the well. To perform the assay, samples or standards are added to the wells, followed by the antibody mix. After incubation, the wells are washed to remove unbound material. TMB substrate is added and during incubation is catalyzed by HRP, generating blue coloration. This reaction is then stopped by addition of Stop Solution completing any color change from blue to yellow. Signal is generated proportionally to the amount of bound analyte and the intensity is measured at 450 nm. Optionally, instead of the endpoint reading, development of TMB can be recorded kinetically at 600 nm.
alpha 1 Antitrypsin (SERPINA1) is a serine protease inhibitor found in a variety of biological fluids. While it can inhibit trypsin, chymotrypsin, and plasminogen activator, it’s main target is elastase. Alpha 1 antitrypsin plays a critical role in the lung by inhibiting the activity of elastase, produced by neutrophils during inflammatory responses. The aberrant form plays a role in coagulation and insulin induced NO synthesis. Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency results in emphysema and may also result in liver disease.
Inhibitor of serine proteases. Its primary target is elastase, but it also has a moderate affinity for plasmin and thrombin. Irreversibly inhibits trypsin, chymotrypsin and plasminogen activator. The aberrant form inhibits insulin-induced NO synthesis in platelets, decreases coagulation time and has proteolytic activity against insulin and plasmin. Short peptide from AAT: reversible chymotrypsin inhibitor. It also inhibits elastase, but not trypsin. Its major physiological function is the protection of the lower respiratory tract against proteolytic destruction by human leukocyte elastase (HLE).
Ubiquitous. Expressed in leukocytes and plasma.
Involvement in disease
Belongs to the serpin family.
The reactive center loop (RCL) extends out from the body of the protein and directs binding to the target protease. The protease cleaves the serpin at the reactive site within the RCL, establishing a covalent linkage between the carboxyl group of the serpin reactive site and the serine hydroxyl of the protease. The resulting inactive serpin-protease complex is highly stable.
N-glycosylated. Differential glycosylation produces a number of isoforms. N-linked glycan at Asn-107 is alternatively di-antennary, tri-antennary or tetra-antennary. The glycan at Asn-70 is di-antennary with trace amounts of tri-antennary. Glycan at Asn-271 is exclusively di-antennary. Structure of glycans at Asn-70 and Asn-271 is Hex5HexNAc4. The structure of the antennae is Neu5Ac(alpha1-6)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc attached to the core structure Man(alpha1-6)[Man(alpha1-3)]Man(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-4)GlcNAc. Some antennae are fucosylated, which forms a Lewis-X determinant. Proteolytic processing may yield the truncated form that ranges from Asp-30 to Lys-418.
Secreted. Endoplasmic reticulum. The S and Z allele are not secreted effectively and accumulate intracellularly in the endoplasmic reticulum and Secreted, extracellular space, extracellular matrix.
Hansen HG et al. Case study on human a1-antitrypsin: Recombinant protein titers obtained by commercial ELISA kits are inaccurate. Biotechnol J11:1648-1656 (2016).
Read more (PubMed: 27731958) »
Hennawy MG et al. The effect of a1-antitrypsin deficiency combined with increased bacterial loads on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pharmacotherapy: A prospective, parallel, controlled pilot study. J Adv Res7:1019-1028 (2016).
Read more (PubMed: 27857848) »