Abcam’s alpha Fetoprotein Human in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the accurate quantitative measurement of alpha Fetoprotein in serum and plasma.
A 96-well plate has been precoated with anti-alpha Fetoprotein IgG antibodies. Samples, standards and the alpha Fetoprotein-HRP conjugate are added to the wells, where alpha Fetoprotein in the sample and standards binds to the precoated antibody and added alpha Fetoprotein-HRP conjugate binds to this antibody-AFP complex. After incubation, the wells are washed to remove unbound material and TMB substrate is then added which is catalyzed by HRP to produce blue coloration. The reaction is terminated by addition of Stop Solution which stops the color development and produces a color change from blue to yellow. The intensity of signal is directly proportional to the amount of alpha Fetoprotein in the sample and the intensity is measured at 450 nm.
FunctionBinds copper, nickel, and fatty acids as well as, and bilirubin less well than, serum albumin. Only a small percentage (less than 2%) of the human AFP shows estrogen-binding properties.
Tissue specificityPlasma. Synthesized by the fetal liver and yolk sac.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the ALB/AFP/VDB family. Contains 3 albumin domains.
Developmental stageOccurs in the plasma of fetuses more than 4 weeks old, reaches the highest levels during the 12th-16th week of gestation, and drops to trace amounts after birth. The serum level in adults is usually less than 40 ng/ml. AFP occurs also at high levels in the plasma and ascitic fluid of adults with hepatoma.
Post-translational modificationsIndependent studies suggest heterogeneity of the N-terminal sequence of the mature protein and of the cleavage site of the signal sequence. Sulfated.