Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2
FunctionInduces NF-kappa-B via RICK (CARDIAK, RIP2) and IKK-gamma. Confers responsiveness to intracellular bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS).
Involvement in diseaseDefects in NOD2 are the cause of Blau syndrome (BS) [MIM:186580]. BS is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by early-onset granulomatous arthritis, uveitis and skin rash. Defects in NOD2 are a cause of susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease type 1 (IBD1) [MIM:266600]. IBD1 is a chronic, relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract with a complex etiology. It is subdivided into Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes. Crohn disease may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus, but most frequently it involves the terminal ileum and colon. Bowel inflammation is transmural and discontinuous; it may contain granulomas or be associated with intestinal or perianal fistulas. In contrast, in ulcerative colitis, the inflammation is continuous and limited to rectal and colonic mucosal layers; fistulas and granulomas are not observed. Both diseases include extraintestinal inflammation of the skin, eyes, or joints. Defects in NOD2 are the cause of sarcoidosis early-onset (EOS) [MIM:609464]. EOS is a form of sarcoidosis manifesting in children younger than 4 years of age. Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic, systemic, inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of immune granulomas in involved organs. Granulomas predominantly invade the lungs and the lymphatic system, but also skin, liver, spleen, eyes and other organs may be involved. Early-onset sarcoidosis is quite rare and has a distinct triad of skin, joint and eye disorders, without apparent pulmonary involvement. Compared with an asymptomatic and sometimes naturally disappearing course of the disease in older children, early-onset sarcoidosis is progressive and in many cases causes severe complications, such as blindness, joint destruction and visceral involvement.