The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
- First try to dissolve a small amount of peptide in either water or buffer. The more charged residues on a peptide, the more soluble it is in aqueous solutions. - If the peptide doesn’t dissolve try an organic solvent e.g. DMSO, then dilute using water or buffer. - Consider that any solvent used must be compatible with your assay. If a peptide does not dissolve and you need to recover it, lyophilise to remove the solvent. - Gentle warming and sonication can effectively aid peptide solubilisation. If the solution is cloudy or has gelled the peptide may be in suspension rather than solubilised. - Peptides containing cysteine are easily oxidised, so should be prepared in solution just prior to use.
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Preparation and Storage
Stability and Storage
Shipped at 4°C. Upon delivery aliquot and store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze / thaw cycles.
Forkhead, Drosophila, homolog of, in rhabdomyosarcoma
FoxO transcription factor
FunctionTranscription factor which acts as a regulator of cell responses to oxidative stress. In the presence of KIRT1, mediates down-regulation of cyclin D1 and up-regulation of CDKN1B levels which are required for cell transition from proliferative growth to quiescence.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in FOXO1 are a cause of rhabdomyosarcoma type 2 (RMS2) [MIM:268220]. It is a form of rhabdomyosarcoma, a highly malignant tumor of striated muscle derived from primitive mesenchimal cells and exhibiting differentiation along rhabdomyoblastic lines. Rhabdomyosarcoma is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children. It occurs in four forms: alveolar, pleomorphic, embryonal and botryoidal rhabdomyosarcomas. Note=Chromosomal aberrations involving FOXO1 are found in rhabdomyosarcoma. Translocation (2;13)(q35;q14) with PAX3; translocation t(1;13)(p36;q14) with PAX7. The resulting protein is a transcriptional activator.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated by AKT1; insulin-induced (By similarity). IGF1 rapidly induces phosphorylation of Ser-256, Thr-24, and Ser-319. Phosphorylation of Ser-256 decreases DNA-binding activity and promotes the phosphorylation of Thr-24, and Ser-319, permitting phosphorylation of Ser-322 and Ser-325, probably by CK1, leading to nuclear exclusion and loss of function. Phosphorylation of Ser-329 is independent of IGF1 and leads to reduced function. Phosphorylated upon DNA damage, probably by ATM or ATR.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm. Nucleus. Shuttles between cytoplasm and nucleus.