The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
70 - 90% by HPLC.
- First try to dissolve a small amount of peptide in either water or buffer. The more charged residues on a peptide, the more soluble it is in aqueous solutions. - If the peptide doesn’t dissolve try an organic solvent e.g. DMSO, then dilute using water or buffer. - Consider that any solvent used must be compatible with your assay. If a peptide does not dissolve and you need to recover it, lyophilise to remove the solvent. - Gentle warming and sonication can effectively aid peptide solubilisation. If the solution is cloudy or has gelled the peptide may be in suspension rather than solubilised. - Peptides containing cysteine are easily oxidised, so should be prepared in solution just prior to use.
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Preparation and Storage
Stability and Storage
Shipped at 4°C. Upon delivery aliquot and store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze / thaw cycles.
Information available upon request.
BMP antagonist 1
Cell proliferation inducing gene 2 protein
Cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein
colorectal adenoma and carcinoma 1
Cysteine knot superfamily 1
Cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1
Cysteine knot superfamily BMP antagonist 1
DAN domain family member 2
Down regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein
Down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein
Gremlin 1 homolog, cysteine knot superfamily
Gremlin 1 like protein
Gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog
Increased in high glucose 2
Increased in high glucose protein 2
Proliferation inducing gene 2
proliferation inducing gene 2 protein
Cytokine that may play an important role during carcinogenesis and metanephric kidney organogenesis, as a BMP antagonist required for early limb outgrowth and patterning in maintaining the FGF4-SHH feedback loop. Down-regulates the BMP4 signaling in a dose-dependent manner. Acts as inhibitor of monocyte chemotaxis.
Highly expressed in small intestine, fetal brain and colon. Expression is restricted to intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) at the crypt base. In subjects with HMPS1, by contrast, GREM1 is expressed, not only in basal ISEMFs, but also at very high levels in epithelial cells (predominantly colonocytes), with expression extending most of the way up the sides of the crypt. Weakly expressed in brain, ovary, prostate, pancreas and skeletal muscle. In brain found in the region localized around the internal capsule in the large subcortical nuclei, including caudate, putamen, substantia nigra, thalamus and subthalamus. Predominantly expressed in normal cells including neurons, astrocytes and fibroblasts.
Involvement in disease
Polyposis syndrome, mixed hereditary 1
Belongs to the DAN family. Contains 1 CTCK (C-terminal cystine knot-like) domain.