The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
- First try to dissolve a small amount of peptide in either water or buffer. The more charged residues on a peptide, the more soluble it is in aqueous solutions. - If the peptide doesn’t dissolve try an organic solvent e.g. DMSO, then dilute using water or buffer. - Consider that any solvent used must be compatible with your assay. If a peptide does not dissolve and you need to recover it, lyophilise to remove the solvent. - Gentle warming and sonication can effectively aid peptide solubilisation. If the solution is cloudy or has gelled the peptide may be in suspension rather than solubilised. - Peptides containing cysteine are easily oxidised, so should be prepared in solution just prior to use.
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Preparation and Storage
Stability and Storage
Shipped at 4°C. Upon delivery aliquot and store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze / thaw cycles.
Transforming growth factor beta-1-induced transcript 1 protein
FunctionFunctions as a molecular adapter coordinating multiple protein-protein interactions at the focal adhesion complex and in the nucleus. Links various intracellular signaling modules to plasma membrane receptors and regulates the Wnt and TGFB signaling pathways. May also regulate SLC6A3 and SLC6A4 targeting to the plasma membrane hence regulating their activity. In the nucleus, functions as a nuclear receptor coactivator regulating glucocorticoid, androgen, mineralocorticoid and progesterone receptor transcriptional activity. May play a role in the processes of cell growth, proliferation, migration, differentiation and senescence. May have a zinc-dependent DNA-binding activity.
Tissue specificityExpressed in platelets, smooth muscle and prostate stromal cells (at protein level).
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the paxillin family. Contains 4 LIM zinc-binding domains.
DomainThe LIM zinc-binding domains mediate glucocorticoid receptor coactivation and interaction with AR, CRIP2, ILK, LIMS1, NR3C1, PPARG, TCF3, TCF7L2, SLC6A3 and SMAD3. The LIM zinc-binding 2 and LIM zinc-binding 3 domains mediate targeting to focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. The LIM zinc-binding 3 and LIM zinc-binding 4 domains mediate interaction with TRAF4 and MAPK15. The LIM zinc-binding 4 domain mediates interaction with HSPB1, homooligomerization and targeting to the nuclear matrix. The LIM zinc-binding 3 domain mediates interaction with PTPN12. The LD (leucine and aspartate-rich) motif 3 mediates interaction with GIT1 and functions as a nuclear export signal.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone-activated SRC.
Cellular localizationCell junction > focal adhesion. Nucleus matrix. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton. Associated with the actin cytoskeleton; colocalizes with stress fibers.