There are only two types of light chain: kappa and lambda in mammals. Other types of light chains are found in lower vertebrates as the Ig-Light-Iota chain in Chondrichthyes and Teleostei. In each antibody, only one type is present and the two chains are identical. Each light chain has two successive domains: one constant and one variable domain.
In humans 60% of light chains are kappa and 40% lambda,whereas in the mouse 95% of light chains are kappa. The amino acid sequences of lambda chains vary slightly at a few positions, allowing them to be classified into subtypes. The number of subtypes varies between species.
Monoclonal immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) are found in the serum and urine (Bence-Jones protein) of patients with a number of B-cell proliferative disorders, including multiple myeloma. Changes in serum FLC concentrations can provide a rapid and sensitive indication of response to treatment.
Cell Membrane: single-pass type I membrane protein and Secreted
A titer Sandwich ELISA using ab193185 as the detection antibody. The plate, coated with the capture antibody anti-human IgG, was loaded with different amounts of human IgG. A serial dilution of ab193185 was used as the detection antibody, followed with an alkaline phosphatase conjugated streptavidin.
ELISA of human immunoglobulins shows ab193185 reacts to both kappa and lambda light chains of human immunoglobulins. No cross reactivity with mouse, rat, or goat immunoglobulin light chain. The plate was coated with 50ng/well of different immunglobulins. 100 ng/mL or 20 ng/mL was used as the primary antibody. An alkaline phosphatase conjugated anti-rabbit IgG as the secondary antibody.