Required for proper activation of Rho GTPases and actin polymerization at the leading edge of locomoting cerebellar neurons and postmigratory hippocampal neurons in response to calcium influx triggered via NMDA receptors. Non-catalytic subunit of an acetylhydrolase complex which inactivates platelet-activating factor (PAF) by removing the acetyl group at the SN-2 position (By similarity). Positively regulates the activity of the minus-end directed microtubule motor protein dynein. May enhance dynein-mediated microtubule sliding by targeting dynein to the microtubule plus end. Required for several dynein- and microtubule-dependent processes such as the maintenance of Golgi integrity, the peripheral transport of microtubule fragments and the coupling of the nucleus and centrosome. Required during brain development for the proliferation of neuronal precursors and the migration of newly formed neurons from the ventricular/subventricular zone toward the cortical plate. Neuronal migration involves a process called nucleokinesis, whereby migrating cells extend an anterior process into which the nucleus subsequently translocates. During nucleokinesis dynein at the nuclear surface may translocate the nucleus towards the centrosome by exerting force on centrosomal microtubules. May also play a role in other forms of cell locomotion including the migration of fibroblasts during wound healing.
Fairly ubiquitous expression in both the frontal and occipital areas of the brain.
Involvement in disease
Defects in PAFAH1B1 are the cause of lissencephaly type 1 (LIS1) [MIM:607432]; also known as classic lissencephaly. LIS1 is characterized by agyria or pachgyria and disorganization of the clear neuronal lamination of normal six-layered cortex. The cortex is abnormally thick and poorly organized with 4 primitive layers. LIS1 is associated with enlarged and dysmorphic ventricles and often hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Defects in PAFAH1B1 are the cause of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) [MIM:607432]. SBH is a mild brain malformation of the lissencephaly spectrum. It is characterized by bilateral and symmetric ribbons of gray matter found in the central white matter between the cortex and the ventricular surface. Defects in PAFAH1B1 are a cause of Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome (MDLS) [MIM:247200]. MDLS is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome of chromosome 17p13.3, characterized by classical lissencephaly and distinct facial features. Additional congenital malformations can be part of the condition.
Belongs to the WD repeat LIS1/nudF family. Contains 1 LisH domain. Contains 7 WD repeats.
Dimerization mediated by the LisH domain may be required to activate dynein.
Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton > centrosome. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton > spindle. Nucleus membrane. Redistributes to axons during neuronal development. Also localizes to the microtubules of the manchette in elongating spermatids and to the meiotic spindle in spermatocytes (By similarity). Localizes to the plus end of microtubules and to the centrosome. May localize to the nuclear membrane.