Product nameHuman p53 Total and pSer9 In-Cell ELISA Kit (IR)
Adherent cells, Suspension cells
Assay typeCell-based (quantitative)
Assay durationMultiple steps standard assay
ab135393 is an In-Cell ELISA (ICE) assay kit that uses quantitative immunocytochemistry to measure levels of p53 phosphorylated at Ser9 and total p53 protein levels in cultured cells. Cells are fixed in a microplate and targets of interest are detected with highly specific, well-characterized antibodies. Relative target levels are quantified using IRDye®-labeled Secondary Antibodies and an IR imaging system.
Plates are available in our ICE (In-Cell ELISA) Support Pack (ab111542) which can be bought seperately.
FunctionActs as a tumor suppressor in many tumor types; induces growth arrest or apoptosis depending on the physiological circumstances and cell type. Involved in cell cycle regulation as a trans-activator that acts to negatively regulate cell division by controlling a set of genes required for this process. One of the activated genes is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Apoptosis induction seems to be mediated either by stimulation of BAX and FAS antigen expression, or by repression of Bcl-2 expression. Implicated in Notch signaling cross-over. Prevents CDK7 kinase activity when associated to CAK complex in response to DNA damage, thus stopping cell cycle progression. Isoform 2 enhances the transactivation activity of isoform 1 from some but not all TP53-inducible promoters. Isoform 4 suppresses transactivation activity and impairs growth suppression mediated by isoform 1. Isoform 7 inhibits isoform 1-mediated apoptosis.
Tissue specificityUbiquitous. Isoforms are expressed in a wide range of normal tissues but in a tissue-dependent manner. Isoform 2 is expressed in most normal tissues but is not detected in brain, lung, prostate, muscle, fetal brain, spinal cord and fetal liver. Isoform 3 is expressed in most normal tissues but is not detected in lung, spleen, testis, fetal brain, spinal cord and fetal liver. Isoform 7 is expressed in most normal tissues but is not detected in prostate, uterus, skeletal muscle and breast. Isoform 8 is detected only in colon, bone marrow, testis, fetal brain and intestine. Isoform 9 is expressed in most normal tissues but is not detected in brain, heart, lung, fetal liver, salivary gland, breast or intestine.
Involvement in diseaseNote=TP53 is found in increased amounts in a wide variety of transformed cells. TP53 is frequently mutated or inactivated in about 60% of cancers. TP53 defects are found in Barrett metaplasia a condition in which the normally stratified squamous epithelium of the lower esophagus is replaced by a metaplastic columnar epithelium. The condition develops as a complication in approximately 10% of patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and predisposes to the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Defects in TP53 are a cause of esophageal cancer (ESCR) [MIM:133239]. Defects in TP53 are a cause of Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) [MIM:151623]. LFS is an autosomal dominant familial cancer syndrome that in its classic form is defined by the existence of a proband affected by a sarcoma before 45 years with a first degree relative affected by any tumor before 45 years and another first degree relative with any tumor before 45 years or a sarcoma at any age. Other clinical definitions for LFS have been proposed (PubMed:8118819 and PubMed:8718514) and called Li-Fraumeni like syndrome (LFL). In these families affected relatives develop a diverse set of malignancies at unusually early ages. Four types of cancers account for 80% of tumors occurring in TP53 germline mutation carriers: breast cancers, soft tissue and bone sarcomas, brain tumors (astrocytomas) and adrenocortical carcinomas. Less frequent tumors include choroid plexus carcinoma or papilloma before the age of 15, rhabdomyosarcoma before the age of 5, leukemia, Wilms tumor, malignant phyllodes tumor, colorectal and gastric cancers. Defects in TP53 are involved in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) [MIM:275355]; also known as squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Defects in TP53 are a cause of lung cancer (LNCR) [MIM:211980]. LNCR is a common malignancy affecting tissues of the lung. The most common form of lung cancer is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that can be divided into 3 major histologic subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell lung cancer. NSCLC is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Defects in TP53 are a cause of choroid plexus papilloma (CPLPA) [MIM:260500]. Choroid plexus papilloma is a slow-growing benign tumor of the choroid plexus that often invades the leptomeninges. In children it is usually in a lateral ventricle but in adults it is more often in the fourth ventricle. Hydrocephalus is common, either from obstruction or from tumor secretion of cerebrospinal fluid. If it undergoes malignant transformation it is called a choroid plexus carcinoma. Primary choroid plexus tumors are rare and usually occur in early childhood. Defects in TP53 are a cause of adrenocortical carcinoma (ADCC) [MIM:202300]. ADCC is a rare childhood tumor of the adrenal cortex. It occurs with increased frequency in patients with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and is a component tumor in Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the p53 family.
DomainThe nuclear export signal acts as a transcriptional repression domain. The TADI and TADII motifs (residues 17 to 25 and 48 to 56) correspond both to 9aaTAD motifs which are transactivation domains present in a large number of yeast and animal transcription factors.
Post-translational modificationsAcetylated. Acetylation of Lys-382 by CREBBP enhances transcriptional activity. Deacetylation of Lys-382 by SIRT1 impairs its ability to induce proapoptotic program and modulate cell senescence. Phosphorylation on Ser residues mediates transcriptional activation. Phosphorylated by HIPK1 (By similarity). Phosphorylation at Ser-9 by HIPK4 increases repression activity on BIRC5 promoter. Phosphorylated on Thr-18 by VRK1. Phosphorylated on Ser-20 by CHEK2 in response to DNA damage, which prevents ubiquitination by MDM2. Phosphorylated on Ser-20 by PLK3 in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS), promoting p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis. Phosphorylated on Thr-55 by TAF1, which promotes MDM2-mediated degradation. Phosphorylated on Ser-33 by CDK7 in a CAK complex in response to DNA damage. Phosphorylated on Ser-46 by HIPK2 upon UV irradiation. Phosphorylation on Ser-46 is required for acetylation by CREBBP. Phosphorylated on Ser-392 following UV but not gamma irradiation. Phosphorylated upon DNA damage, probably by ATM or ATR. Phosphorylated on Ser-15 upon ultraviolet irradiation; which is enhanced by interaction with BANP. Phosphorylated by NUAK1 at Ser-15 and Ser-392; was intially thought to be mediated by STK11/LKB1 but it was later shown that it is indirect and that STK11/LKB1-dependent phosphorylation is probably mediated by downstream NUAK1 (PubMed:21317932). It is unclear whether AMP directly mediates phosphorylation at Ser-15. Phosphorylated on Thr-18 by isoform 1 and isoform 2 of VRK2. Phosphorylation on Thr-18 by isoform 2 of VRK2 results in a reduction in ubiquitination by MDM2 and an increase in acetylation by EP300. Stabilized by CDK5-mediated phosphorylation in response to genotoxic and oxidative stresses at Ser-15, Ser-33 and Ser-46, leading to accumulation of p53/TP53, particularly in the nucleus, thus inducing the transactivation of p53/TP53 target genes. Phosphorylated at Ser-315 and Ser-392 by CDK2 in response to DNA-damage. Dephosphorylated by PP2A-PPP2R5C holoenzyme at Thr-55. SV40 small T antigen inhibits the dephosphorylation by the AC form of PP2A. May be O-glycosylated in the C-terminal basic region. Studied in EB-1 cell line. Ubiquitinated by MDM2 and SYVN1, which leads to proteasomal degradation. Ubiquitinated by RFWD3, which works in cooperation with MDM2 and may catalyze the formation of short polyubiquitin chains on p53/TP53 that are not targeted to the proteasome. Ubiquitinated by MKRN1 at Lys-291 and Lys-292, which leads to proteasomal degradation. Deubiquitinated by USP10, leading to its stabilization. Ubiquitinated by TRIM24, which leads to proteasomal degradation. Ubiquitination by TOPORS induces degradation. Deubiquitination by USP7, leading to stabilization. Isoform 4 is monoubiquitinated in an MDM2-independent manner. Monomethylated at Lys-372 by SETD7, leading to stabilization and increased transcriptional activation. Monomethylated at Lys-370 by SMYD2, leading to decreased DNA-binding activity and subsequent transcriptional regulation activity. Lys-372 monomethylation prevents interaction with SMYD2 and subsequent monomethylation at Lys-370. Dimethylated at Lys-373 by EHMT1 and EHMT2. Monomethylated at Lys-382 by SETD8, promoting interaction with L3MBTL1 and leading to repress transcriptional activity. Demethylation of dimethylated Lys-370 by KDM1A prevents interaction with TP53BP1 and represses TP53-mediated transcriptional activation. Sumoylated by SUMO1.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm; Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Nucleus > PML body. Endoplasmic reticulum. Interaction with BANP promotes nuclear localization. Recruited into PML bodies together with CHEK2; Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Localized in both nucleus and cytoplasm in most cells. In some cells, forms foci in the nucleus that are different from nucleoli; Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Localized in the nucleus in most cells but found in the cytoplasm in some cells; Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Localized mainly in the nucleus with minor staining in the cytoplasm; Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Predominantly nuclear but localizes to the cytoplasm when expressed with isoform 4 and Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Predominantly nuclear but translocates to the cytoplasm following cell stress.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use at an assay dependent concentration.
Human p53 Total and pSer9 In-Cell ELISA Kit (IR) images
Sample experiment using ab135393 on MCF-7 cells treated with for 6 hours with camptothecin or drug vehicle (DMSO)
The data is presented as mean +/- SEM. Camptothecin treatment induced an increase in both p53 phospho S9 levels (A, D) and total p53 protein levels (B, E). Note that the Janus Green-normalized intensities are not constant with amount of seeded cells for both analytes (D, E). This is caused by imperfect IR signals linearity with cell dilution (A, B). To eliminate this effect, all samples (wells) should have similar amount of cells.
Specificity of antibodies demonstrated by Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence
Primary antibodies used in this assay kit were validated by staining MCF-7 cells treated with camptothecin or vehicle (as in Figure 1) and imaged by fluorescent microscopy. (1) Mostly nuclear localization of both p53 phospho S9 and total p53 protein signals. (2) Increase in both p53 phospho S9 and total p53 protein signals upon camptothecin treatment.
Specificity of antibodies demonstrated by Western Blot Analysis
Extracts of Hek293T cells (20 µg/lane) were treated with vehicle (lane 2) or etoposide (lane 3). Extracts of Hek 293T cells (induced with etoposide, 8 µg/lane) were treated with increasing concentrations of lambda protein phosphatase (lane 5, 400x diluted; lane 6, 100x diluted; lane 7, 25x diluted) or left untreated (lane 4). Samples were analyzed by Western blotting using the rabbit p53 Phospho S9 Antibody (A) or the mouse Total p53 Protein Antibody (B). Note the sensitivity of the p53 phospho S9 signal to treatment with lambda protein phosphatase and resistance of the total p53 protein signal to this treatment.