The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use a concentration of 1 - 5 µg/ml.
1/500 - 1/1000. Detects a band of approximately 34 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 36 kDa).
Use at an assay dependent concentration.
Inhibits the activity of dimeric NF-kappa-B/REL complexes by trapping REL dimers in the cytoplasm through masking of their nuclear localization signals. On cellular stimulation by immune and proinflammatory responses, becomes phosphorylated promoting ubiquitination and degradation, enabling the dimeric RELA to translocate to the nucleus and activate transcription.
Involvement in disease
Ectodermal dysplasia, anhidrotic, with T-cell immunodeficiency autosomal dominant
Belongs to the NF-kappa-B inhibitor family. Contains 5 ANK repeats.
Phosphorylated; disables inhibition of NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity. Phosphorylation at positions 32 and 36 is prerequisite to recognition by UBE2D3 leading to polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Sumoylated; sumoylation requires the presence of the nuclear import signal. Sumoylation blocks ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of the protein thereby increasing the protein stability. Monoubiquitinated at Lys-21 and/or Lys-22 by UBE2D3. Ubiquitin chain elongation is then performed by CDC34 in cooperation with the SCF(FBXW11) E3 ligase complex, building ubiquitin chains from the UBE2D3-primed NFKBIA-linked ubiquitin. The resulting polyubiquitination leads to protein degradation. Also ubiquitinated by SCF(BTRC) following stimulus-dependent phosphorylation at Ser-32 and Ser-36. Deubiquitinated by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Nsp2 protein, which thereby interferes with NFKBIA degradation and impairs subsequent NF-kappa-B activation.
Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm by a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a CRM1-dependent nuclear export.
ICC/IF image of ab47449 stained HepG2 cells. The cells were 100% methanol fixed (5 min) and then incubated in 1%BSA / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated with the antibody (ab47449, 1µg/ml) overnight at +4°C. The secondary antibody (green) was Alexa Fluor® 488 goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) used at a 1/1000 dilution for 1h. Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1h. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue) at a concentration of 1.43µM.