The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Application notesWB: Use at a concentration of 1-5 µg/ml.
Not yet tested in other applications. Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
FunctionPhosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) phosphatase that specifically hydrolyzes the 5-phosphate of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) to produce PtdIns(3,4)P2, thereby negatively regulating the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) pathways. Plays a central role in regulation of PI3K-dependent insulin signaling, although the precise molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways remain unclear. While overexpression reduces both insulin-stimulated MAP kinase and Akt activation, its absence does not affect insulin signaling or GLUT4 trafficking. Confers resistance to dietary obesity. May act by regulating AKT2, but not AKT1, phosphorylation at the plasma membrane. Part of a signaling pathway that regulates actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Required for the maintenance and dynamic remodeling of actin structures as well as in endocytosis, having a major impact on ligand-induced EGFR internalization and degradation. Participates in regulation of cortical and submembraneous actin by hydrolyzing PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 thereby regulating membrane ruffling. Regulates cell adhesion and cell spreading. Required for HGF-mediated lamellipodium formation, cell scattering and spreading. Acts as a negative regulator of EPHA2 receptor endocytosis by inhibiting via PI3K-dependent Rac1 activation. Acts as a regulator of neuritogenesis by regulating PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 level and is required to form an initial protrusive pattern, and later, maintain proper neurite outgrowth. Acts as a negative regulator of the FC-gamma-RIIA receptor (FCGR2A). Mediates signaling from the FC-gamma-RIIB receptor (FCGR2B), playing a central role in terminating signal transduction from activating immune/hematopoietic cell receptor systems. Involved in EGF signaling pathway. Upon stimulation by EGF, it is recruited by EGFR and dephosphorylates PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Plays a negative role in regulating the PI3K-PKB pathway, possibly by inhibiting PKB activity. Down-regulates Fc-gamma-R-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages independently of INPP5D/SHIP1. In macrophages, down-regulates NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription by regulating macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-induced signaling. May also hydrolyze PtdIns(1,3,4,5)P4, and could thus affect the levels of the higher inositol polyphosphates like InsP6.
Tissue specificityWidely expressed, most prominently in skeletal muscle, heart and brain. Present in platelets. Expressed in transformed myeloid cells and in primary macrophages, but not in peripheral blood monocytes.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in INPPL1 may be a cause of susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus non-insulin dependent (NIDDM) [MIM:125853]. Note=Genetic variations in INPPL1 may be a cause of susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia is absent.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase family. Contains 1 SAM (sterile alpha motif) domain. Contains 1 SH2 domain.
DomainThe SH2 domain interacts with tyrosine phosphorylated forms of proteins such as SHC1 or FCGR2A. It also mediates the interaction with p130Cas/BCAR1. The NPXY sequence motif found in many tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins is required for the specific binding of the PID domain.
Post-translational modificationsTyrosine phosphorylated by the members of the SRC family after exposure to a diverse array of extracellular stimuli such as insulin, growth factors such as EGF or PDGF, chemokines, integrin ligands and hypertonic and oxidative stress. May be phosphorylated upon IgG receptor FCGR2B-binding. Phosphorylated at Tyr-986 following cell attachment and spreading. Phosphorylated at Tyr-1162 following EGF signaling pathway stimulation. Phosphorylated at Thr-958 in response to PDGF.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm > cytosol. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton > actin patch. Membrane. Translocates to membrane ruffles when activated, translocation is probably due to different mechanisms depending on the stimulus and cell type. Partly translocated via its SH2 domain which mediates interaction with tyrosine phosphorylated receptors such as the FC-gamma-RIIB receptor (FCGR2B). Tyrosine phosphorylation may also participate in membrane localization. Insulin specifically stimulates its redistribution from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Recruited to the membrane following M-CSF stimulation.