The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/1. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
Boil tissue section in 10mM citrate buffer, pH 6.0 for 10 min followed by cooling at room temperature for 20 min.
Use neat. Note: samples are acetone fixed.
FunctionRequired to maintain individual mitotic chromosomes dispersed in the cytoplasm following nuclear envelope disassembly (PubMed:27362226). Associates with the surface of the mitotic chromosome, the perichromosomal layer, and covers a substantial fraction of the chromosome surface (PubMed:27362226). Prevents chromosomes from collapsing into a single chromatin mass by forming a steric and electrostatic charge barrier: the protein has a high net electrical charge and acts as a surfactant, dispersing chromosomes and enabling independent chromosome motility (PubMed:27362226). Binds DNA, with a preference for supercoiled DNA and AT-rich DNA (PubMed:10878551). Does not contribute to the internal structure of mitotic chromosomes (By similarity). May play a role in chromatin organization (PubMed:24867636). It is however unclear whether it plays a direct role in chromatin organization or whether it is an indirect consequence of its function in maintaining mitotic chromosomes dispersed.
Developmental stageExpression occurs preferentially during late G1, S, G2 and M phases of the cell cycle, while in cells in G0 phase the antigen cannot be detected (at protein level) (PubMed:6206131). Present at highest level in G2 phase and during mitosis (at protein level). In interphase, forms fiber-like structures in fibrillarin-deficient regions surrounding nucleoli (PubMed:2674163, PubMed:8799815).
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated. Hyperphosphorylated in mitosis (PubMed:10502411, PubMed:10653604). Hyperphosphorylated form does not bind DNA.
Cellular localizationChromosome. Nucleus. Nucleus, nucleolus. Associates with the surface of the mitotic chromosome, the perichromosomal layer, and covers a substantial fraction of the mitotic chromosome surface (PubMed:27362226). Associates with satellite DNA in G1 phase (PubMed:9510506). Binds tightly to chromatin in interphase, chromatin-binding decreases in mitosis when it associates with the surface of the condensed chromosomes (PubMed:15896774, PubMed:22002106). Predominantly localized in the G1 phase in the perinucleolar region, in the later phases it is also detected throughout the nuclear interior, being predominantly localized in the nuclear matrix (PubMed:22002106).