Histone methyltransferase that specifically trimethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3 using monomethylated H3 'Lys-9' as substrate. Also weakly methylates histone H1 (in vitro). H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression by recruiting HP1 (CBX1, CBX3 and/or CBX5) proteins to methylated histones. Mainly functions in heterochromatin regions, thereby playing a central role in the establishment of constitutive heterochromatin at pericentric and telomere regions. H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation is also required to direct DNA methylation at pericentric repeats. SUV39H1 is targeted to histone H3 via its interaction with RB1 and is involved in many processes, such as repression of MYOD1-stimulated differentiation, regulation of the control switch for exiting the cell cycle and entering differentiation, repression by the PML-RARA fusion protein, BMP-induced repression, repression of switch recombination to IgA and regulation of telomere length. Component of the eNoSC (energy-dependent nucleolar silencing) complex, a complex that mediates silencing of rDNA in response to intracellular energy status and acts by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes. The eNoSC complex is able to sense the energy status of cell: upon glucose starvation, elevation of NAD(+)/NADP(+) ratio activates SIRT1, leading to histone H3 deacetylation followed by dimethylation of H3 at 'Lys-9' (H3K9me2) by SUV39H1 and the formation of silent chromatin in the rDNA locus. Recruited by the large PER complex to the E-box elements of the circadian target genes such as PER2 itself or PER1, contributes to the conversion of local chromatin to a heterochromatin-like repressive state through H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation.
Belongs to the class V-like SAM-binding methyltransferase superfamily. Histone-lysine methyltransferase family. Suvar3-9 subfamily. Contains 1 chromo domain. Contains 1 post-SET domain. Contains 1 pre-SET domain. Contains 1 SET domain.
Accumulates during mitosis at centromeres during prometaphase, but dissociates from the centromere at the meta- to anaphase transition.
Although the SET domain contains the active site of enzymatic activity, both pre-SET and post-SET domains are required for methyltransferase activity. The SET domain also participates to stable binding to heterochromatin. In the pre-SET domain, Cys residues bind 3 zinc ions that are arranged in a triangular cluster; some of these Cys residues contribute to the binding of two zinc ions within the cluster.
Phosphorylated on serine residues, and to a lesser degree, on threonine residues. The phosphorylated form is stabilized by SBF1 and is less active in its transcriptional repressor function. Acetylated at Lys-266, leading to inhibition of enzyme activity. SIRT1-mediated deacetylation relieves this inhibition.
Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence - Anti-KMT1A / SUV39H1 antibody (ab38637)This image is courtesy of an Abreview submitted by Dr Alexander Rapp
ab38637 staining cultured human HeLa cells by ICC/IF. Cells were PFA fixed and permeabilized in 0.5% Triton X100 prior to blocking in 5% BSA for 1 hour at 20°C. The primary antibody was diluted 1/200 and incubated with the sample for 1 hour at 20°C. A Cy3® conjugated donkey anti-rabbit antibody diluted 1/400 was used as the secondary.
Alkemade FE et al. Prenatal exposure to apoE deficiency and postnatal hypercholesterolemia are associated with altered cell-specific lysine methyltransferase and histone methylation patterns in the vasculature. Am J Pathol176:542-8 (2010).
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